• Olwethu Sipuka

  • O Sipuka ‘Country report: Rwanda’ (2018) 6 African Disability Rights Yearbook 213-231
    http://doi.org/10.29053/2413-7138/2018/v6a10
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1.1 What is the total population of Rwanda?

According to the fourth Rwanda Population and Housing Census, Rwanda has a total of 10 515 973 inhabitants.1

1.2 Describe the methodology used to obtain the statistical data on the prevalence of disability in Rwanda. What criteria are used to determine who falls within the class of persons with disabilities in Rwanda?

The fourth Rwanda Population and Housing Census was used to obtain data on the prevalence of disability in Rwanda. The census questionnaire was used to collect data. This questionnaire contained a set of questions meant to obtain information about households with certain types of disability. Disabilities included impairments of sight, hearing, speaking, walking/climbing, learning/concentrating, as well as other disabilities.2

1.3 What is the total number and percentage of people with disabilities in Rwanda?

According to the fourth Rwanda Population and Housing Census (2012), 446 453 persons aged five years and over were reported to have disabilities.3

1.4 What is the total number and percentage of women with disabilities in Rwanda?

According to the fourth Rwanda Population and Housing Census, there are 225 303 women (4,8 per cent) with disabilities in Rwanda.

1.5 What is the total number and percentage of children with disabilities in Rwanda?

No statistics were available on children with disabilities. The available statistics reflect data of persons aged five years and over.

1.6 What are the most prevalent forms of disability and/or peculiarities to disability in Rwanda?

The most common type of disability in Rwanda is that of walking or climbing, with a prevalence rate of 3 per cent among the population aged five years and over. The other forms of disability with the number of residents are as follows:4

  • sight - 57 213
  • hearing - 33 471
  • speech - 16 256
  • walking/climbing - 220 130
  • learning/concentrating - 84 133
  • other disabilities - 66 696
  • types not stated - 1 967

 

2.1 What is the status of the United Nation Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD) in Rwanda? Did Rwanda sign and ratify the CRPD? Provide the date(s).

Rwanda ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 15 December 2008.5

2.2 If Rwanda has signed and ratified the CRPD, when was its country report due? Which government department is responsible for submission of the report? Did Rwanda submit its report? If so, and if the report has been considered, indicate if there was a domestic effect of this reporting process. If not, what reasons does the relevant government department give for the delay?

Rwanda’s first report was due on 15 January 2011. The Ministry of Justice was responsible for the submission of the report. The Ministry has a department of International Justice and Judicial Cooperation which was tasked to lead the report-drafting process. Rwanda did submit its report, but the report has not yet been considered. This depends on the agenda of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

2.3 While reporting under various other United Nation’s instruments, or under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, or the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, did Rwanda also report specifically on the rights of persons with disabilities in its most recent reports? If so, were relevant ‘concluding observations’ adopted? If relevant, were these observations given effect to? Was mention made of disability rights in your state’s UN Universal Periodic Review (UPR)? If so, what was the effect of these observations/recommendations?

Rwanda has acceded to, ratified or approved several key international and regional instruments on human rights and their additional protocols, in particular the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Universal Declaration); the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter); the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR); the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW); the Convention on Rights of the Child (CRC); and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).6

International instruments
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child

Rwanda submitted its third and fourth periodic reports to the CRC Committee in June 2013. Regarding the rights of children, the Committee commended Rwanda for adopting Law 54/2011 of 14 December 2011 relating to the Rights and Protection of the Child; Law 22/2011 of 28 June 2011 establishing the National Commission for Children; and Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007 relating to the protection of the rights of disabled persons in general; The Hague 1993 Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption in March 2012; Law 13/2009 of 27 May 2009 regulating labour in Rwanda and its subsequent regulations, namely, Ministerial Order 06 of 13 July 2010 containing a list of the worst forms of child labour.

Based on the recommendation by the Committee, some guiding documents were drawn up, such as the development of bio-psychosocial guidelines for residential centres of persons with disabilities (December 2017); development of mental health guidelines for persons living in centres (February 2017) and the establishment of the competence-based curriculum for mental disability in 2017.

  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Rwanda submitted its second and fourth periodic reports on the implementation of the ICESCR to the ESCR Committee in May 2013. As far as the rights of persons with disabilities are concerned, the Committee noted with appreciation the adoption of Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007 regarding the protection of persons with disabilities by the Republic of Rwanda; and also welcomed the ratification of the CRPD on 15 December 2008; and the Optional Protocol to Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 15 December 2008.7 The Committee recommended that Rwanda should implement effective measures to increase employment in favour of persons with disabilities.8 This is effected through the National Employment Programme (NEP) where 1 288 persons with disabilities underwent vocational training whereafter they are supported to obtain start-up kits and start-up loans. A Ministerial Order was enacted in 2009 which determines modalities for easy access to employment for persons with disabilities.9

  • UN Universal Periodic Review (UPR)

The review of Rwanda was conducted at the second meeting on 24 January 2011. The report mentioned some key issues which included access to education and health, and respect for women, children and persons with disabilities. Rwanda was commended for the progress made towards access to education and health, respect for women and children and persons with disabilities. The country was encouraged to take further initiatives towards protecting the rights of marginalised and vulnerable groups and ending gender-based violence.10

Regional instruments
  • African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

Rwanda signed the African Charter on 11 November and ratified it on 17 May 1983. The eighth periodic report was submitted to the Secretariat of the African Commission on 14 August. 11

Regarding the impact of the recommendations, Rwanda welcomed the recommendations by the relevant committees and committed itself to implementing these. Rwanda is currently in the process of finalising its periodic reports on the CEC and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (African Children’s Charter). Both reports highlight steps made in improving the rights of children with disabilities.

2.4 Was there any domestic effect on Rwanda’s legal system after ratifying the international or regional instruments in 2.3 above? Does the international or regional instrument that has been ratified require Rwanda’s legislature to incorporate it into the legal system before the instrument can have force in Rwanda’s domestic law? Have Rwanda’s courts ever considered this question? If so, cite the case(s).

Rwanda has ratified and domesticated most international and regional instruments, including the CRPD and its Optional Protocol. Rwanda is a monist state; article 190 of the Constitution of Rwanda (revised in 2015) adopted the monist approach which entails that an international treaty provision becomes part of domestic law upon ratification.12

The Rwandan context is influenced by the adverse effects of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, which resulted in many additional persons with disabilities as well as persons with mental health challenges.

2.5 With reference to 2.4 above, has the United Nations CRPD or any other ratified international instrument been domesticated? Provide details.

Rwanda is a monist state with the result that once international human rights instruments are duly ratified they become part and parcel of municipal law. Furthermore, Rwanda has enacted several domestic laws to implement ratified human rights instruments, such as Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007, relating to the protection of disabled persons in general, and Law 02/2007 on the protection of former war combatants with disabilities. These laws were passed after ratification of the CRPD.

3.1 Does the Constitution of Rwanda contain provisions that directly address disability? If so, list the provision, and explain how each provision addresses disability.

The Rwandan Constitution of 2003, revised in 2015, contains provisions that directly address disability:

Article 51:

Welfare of persons with disabilities and other needy persons.

The state has the duty to establish special measures facilitating the education of persons with disabilities.

The state also has the duty, within its means, to undertake special actions aimed at the welfare of persons with disabilities.

The state also has the duty, within the limits of its means, to undertake special actions aimed at the welfare of the indigent, the elderly and other vulnerable groups.

Article 75:

Composition of the Chamber of Deputies and election of its members.

The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 80 deputies. They originate and are elected from the following categories: one deputy elected by the National Council of Persons with Disabilities.

Article 139:

National commissions, specialised organs, national councils and public institutions.

The national commissions, specialised organs and national councils entrusted with the responsibility to help in resolving important issues facing the country are the following:

National Councils:

(a) National Women Council

(b) National Youth Council

(c) National Council of Persons with Disabilities.

3.2 Does the Constitution of Rwanda contain provisions that indirectly address disability? If so, list the provisions and explain how each provision indirectly addresses disability.

The Constitution of Rwanda contains provisions that indirectly address disability with reference to ‘persons affected by genocide, without discrimination or any other form of discrimination, right to life’ in the following articles:

Article 16

Protection from discrimination

All Rwandans are born and remain equal in rights and freedoms. Discrimination of any kind or its propaganda based on, inter alia, ethnic origin, family or ancestry, clan, skin colour or race, sex, region, economic categories, religion or faith, opinion, fortune, cultural differences, language, economic status, physical or mental disability or any other form of discrimination are prohibited and punishable by law.

Article 20

Right to education

Every Rwandan has the right to education. Freedom of learning and teaching is guaranteed in accordance with conditions determined by law. Primary education is compulsory and free in public schools. Conditions for free primary education in schools subsidised by the government are determined by law. A law also determines the organisation of education.’ Nonetheless, there is no mention of the disabled people in the revised Constitution.

Article 50

Welfare of needy survivors of the genocide against Tutsi.

The state, within the limits of its means and in accordance with the law, has the duty to undertake special actions aimed at the welfare of the needy survivors of the genocide against Tutsi.

 

4.1 Does Rwanda have legislation that directly addresses issues relating to disability? If so, list the legislation and explain how the legislation addresses disability.

The rights of persons with disabilities are protected by the Constitution along with those of all other Rwandan citizens. The rights of persons with disabilities are further protected by the National Law 01/2007 on the protection of persons with disabilities in general; Law 02/2007 on the protection of former war combatants with disabilities; Law 27 of 2001 relating to the rights and protection of the child against violence; and Law 3/2011 of 10 February 2011 determining the responsibilities, organisation and functioning of the National Council of Persons with Disabilities.

  • Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007, relating to the protection of disabled persons in general and Law 02/2007 on the protection of former war combatants with disabilities

This legislation deals with the rights of persons with disabilities in matters related to education, health, employment, culture, entertainment and sports, transport and communication and access to infrastructure. This law is aimed at protecting and promoting the rights of persons with disabilities.13

  • Law 3/2011 of 10 February 2011 determining the responsibilities, organisation and functioning of the National Council of Persons with Disabilities

The National Council of Persons with Disabilities (NCPD) is an independent public institution established by the state. The Council functions for all Rwandans with disabilities and consists of three organs, namely, the General Assembly; the Executive Secretariat; and the Executive Committee, which is represented from cell level to national level by elected persons with disabilities. The NCPD is a public and independent institution with legal personality, and both financial and administrative autonomy. It is a forum for advocacy and social mobilisation on issues affecting persons with disabilities in order to build their capacity and ensure their participation in national development. The Council assists the government in implementing programmes and policies that benefit persons with disabilities. It therefore has an advocacy, implementing and monitoring role. The NCPD has elected representatives of persons with disabilities on all level14s.

4.2 Does Rwanda have legislation that indirectly addresses issues relating to disability? If so, list the legislation and explain how the legislation addresses disability.
  • Law 27 of 2001 Relating to the Rights and Protection of the Child Against Violence

This Act promotes the protection and promotion of children’s rights, including children with disabilities. The Law covers a wide range of children’s rights: a child’s responsibilities; crimes against children and their penalties; the crimes of rape and the use of a child for dehumanising acts; and the criminalisation of forced marriage of a child below the age of 21 years.15

  • Organic Law 01/2012/OL of 2 May 2012 Instituting the Panel Code

Article 165 (Exemption from criminal liability for abortion) provides:

There is no criminal liability for a woman who commits abortion and a medical doctor who helps a woman to abort if one of the following conditions is met:

(1) when a woman has become pregnant as a result of rape;

(2) when a woman has been subjected to forced marriage;

(3) when a woman has become pregnant due to incest in the second degree;

(4) when the continuation of pregnancy seriously jeopardises the health of the unborn baby or that of the pregnant woman.

The exemption from criminal liability under items 1, 2 and 3 of Paragraph One of this article shall be permitted only if the woman who seeks abortion submits to the doctor an order issued by the competent court recognising one of the cases under these items, or when this is proven to the court by a person charged of abortion. The court where the complaint is filed shall hear and make a decision as a matter of urgency.

This article addresses the situation where a person with a disability fell pregnant through rape or forced marriage, and found herself committing the crime of abortion in Rwanda.

  • Organic Law 10/2013/0L of 11 July 2013 Governing Political Organisations and Politicians

The Act provides that any Rwandan who is at least 18 years old has the right to join a political organisation. However, judges, prosecutors, members of the Rwanda Defense Force, members of the Rwanda National Police and members of the National Intelligence and Security Service may not be members of political organisations. Nobody is allowed to be a member of more than one political organisation at the same time.

5.1 Have the courts (or tribunals) in Rwanda ever decided on an issue(s) relating to disability? If so, list the cases and provide a summary for each of the cases with the facts, the decision(s) and the reasoning.

Courts and tribunals play an important role in the promotion and protection of human rights through rendered judgments. However, no case law is recorded.

 

6.1 Does Rwanda have policies or programmes that directly address disability? If so, list each policy and explain how the policy addresses disability
  • Special Needs Education Policy (2007)

In 2013 this policy was reviewed and renamed the Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy. The policy focuses on children with special educational needs and those with disabilities.16 The policy promotes the inclusive education model, since most children with special educational needs and disabilities fail to enrol in specialised schools due to distance, health issues and financial challenges.

  • Social Protection Policy

The purpose of the revised social protection policy is to reduce vulnerability in general, and vulnerability of poor and marginalised people, in particular; to promote sustainable economic and social development by the reduction of social risk and coordination of saving activities; and the protection of vulnerable groups in the short, medium and long terms. The main beneficiary groups of social protection are survivors of the genocide against the Tutsi; orphans; children in difficult situations; widows; people living with HIV/AIDS; youths from broken families; demobilised ex-combatants; persons with disabilities; repatriated people; refugees; older people; disaster victims; and historically-marginalised groups.17

This policy implements the programmes that cater for vulnerable persons, including persons with disabilities. The programmes are the following: Vision 2020 Umurenge Programme (VUP); Genocide Survivors Support and Assistance Fund (FARG); Rwanda Demobilisation and Reintegration Commission (RDRC); the VUP Direct Support and Public Works programmes; and the FARG emergency assistance and subsistence allowances for disabled ex-combatants.

  • Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS2) 2013-2018

Persons with disabilities form part of the group of vulnerable people targeted by EDPRS2. The mission of EDPRS2 is to ensure that all poor and vulnerable people are guaranteed a minimum income and access to core public services and that those who can work are provided with the means to escape poverty. This provides a safety net that is delivered through cash transfers in the Vision 2020 Umerenge Programme (VUP), direct support programmes and public works programmes.

  • Family Policy and Policy on Protection of Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children

The Family Policy was developed in 2005 and revised in 2013. This policy deals with the support and promotion of the family, with the emphasis on child rearing and the education and socialisation of children. The policy also addresses problems arising within families, such as domestic violence against spouses or child abuse. The policy on the protection of orphans and other vulnerable children defines orientations for the promotion of the rights of children with disabilities, namely:

  • access to physical rehabilitation services;
  • early prevention of disabilities among young children;
  • access to formal and informal education;
  • the promotion of community systems that enable children with disabilities to remain in the family and receive necessary family and community support with all other citizens.
  • Ministerial Orders

In 2009 the government of Rwanda adopted several Ministerial Orders relating to the measures to facilitate communication, travel, education, spo18rt and leisure, medical care and employment for persons with disabilities19. Some Ministerial Orders that protect the rights of the persons with disabilities are the following:

(1) Ministerial Order 01/2009 of 19 June 2009 determining the modalities of facilitating persons with disabilities to practise and follow cultural, entertainment and sports activities;

(2) Ministerial Order 20/18 of 27 July 2009 determining the modalities of classifying persons with disabilities into basic categories based on the degree of disability;

(3) Ministerial Order 02/cab.m/09 of 27 July 2009 determining the modalities of facilitating persons with disabilities on necessary travels in the country;

(4) Ministerial Order 20/18 of 27 July 2009 determining the modalities of classifying persons with disabilities into basic categories based on the degree of disability.

(5) Ministerial Order 20/19 of 27 July 2009 determining the modalities of facilitating persons with disabilities access medical care;

(6) Ministerial Order 03/19.19 of 27 July 2009 determining the modalities of facilitating persons with disabilities to easily access employment;

(7) Ministerial Order 01/09/MININFOR of 10 August 2009 determining the modalities of facilitating persons with disabilities matters relating to communication.

6.2 Does Rwanda have policies or programmes that indirectly address disability? If so, list each policy and explain how the policy addresses disability.
National Policy against Gender-Based Violence

The Gender-Based Violence Policy does not directly protect children including those with disabilities, but indirectly affects children whose parents or guardians suffer gender-related abuse at home or the work place. This type of abuse can also affect the children emotionally or psychologically.20

7.1 Other than the ordinary courts and tribunals, does Rwanda have any official body that specifically addresses violations of the rights of people with disabilities? If so, describe the body, its functions and its powers.

The main responsibilities of the National Council of Persons with Disabilities (NCPD) include the mobilisation and representation of persons with disabilities; lobbying for rights of persons with disabilities; and encouraging them to participate in national development programmes. The NCPD also promotes the rights of persons with disabilities and monitor the respect for laws protecting persons with disabilities. The NCPD has an urgent need to build capacity and work for participation of persons with disabilities in national development.21

7.2 Other than the ordinary courts or tribunals, does Rwanda have any official body that though not established to specifically address violations of the rights of persons with disabilities, can nonetheless do so? If so, describe the body, its functions and its powers.

Rwanda has the Office of the Ombudsman and National Commission for Human Rights with the overall mandate of investigating and addressing violations of rights, including the rights of persons with disabilities. For more details, see question 8 below.

8.1 Does Rwanda have a Human Rights Commission or an Ombudsman or Public Protector? If so, does its remit include the promotion and protection of the rights of people with disabilities? If your answer is yes, also indicate whether the Human Rights Commission or the Ombudsman or Public Protector of Rwanda has ever addressed issues relating to the rights of persons with disabilities.

There is a National Commission for Human Rights (NCHR) in Rwanda, which is an independent public institution provided for by the Constitution. The NCHR functions in compliance with the Paris principles, and is composed of seven commissioners nominated from different categories of Rwandan society, including civil society. The NCHR’s main mission is to promote and protect human rights; to educate and sensitise the public on human rights; to provide advice and draft laws related to human rights on request; and to integrate these in national legislation related to the rights of the child, women, persons with disabilities, people living with HIV/AIDS, refugees, migrant workers and members of their families, and the elderly.22

The office of the Ombudsman is also an independent institution established by the Constitution. The functions of the office of the Ombudsman is to prevent and fight injustice, corruption, and offences related to public and private administration. Furthermore, this office conduct sensitisation and public awareness activities in various institutions to urge them to find solutions to complaints from the population, including petitions lodged by persons with disabilities.23

9.1 Does Rwanda have organisations that represent and advocate the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities? If so, list each organisation and describe its activities.

There are organisations in Rwanda that represent and advocate the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities. They are the following:

  • Association Générale des Handicapés du Rwanda (AGHR)

AGHR, established in December 1979, is one of Rwanda’s oldest organisations for people with disabilities. AGHR is a cross-disability organisation of disabled people which defends, protects and promotes the human rights and social and economic well-being of persons with disabilities.24

  • Collectif Tubakunde

This is an organisation involved in children with intellectual impairments, focusing on improving the standards of special education and health care for children with intellectual impairments.25

  • National Organisation of User and Survivors of Psychiatry in Rwanda (NOUSPR)

NOUSPR’s mandate is to provide a voice to all people with psychosocial disabilities in Rwanda. This organisation was established in 2007. It is part of a worldwide movement, called the World Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry, which advocates the rights of people with psychosocial disabilities as provided for in the CRPD.

  • National Paralympic Committee (NPC)

The NPC was established in 2001, and its mandate is to promote and co-ordinate sports for persons with disabilities. The NPC is made up of associations and sport clubs with people with disabilities as members.26

  • Rwanda Union of the Blind (RUB)

The RUB was formed in 1994. RUB on behalf of its members advocates equal rights for people with visual impairments. In 2014 RUB received an international reward for its work.27

  • Rwanda National Association of Deaf Women (RNADW)

RNADW was created in 2005 by a group of deaf women to advocate their rights.28

  • Rwanda National Union of the Deaf (RNUD)

RNUD is organisation which brings together all categories of deaf people to address their social, economic, cultural and political needs. RNUD was established in 1989 by deaf people with the aim of uniting themselves, raising awareness of the issues or concerns and ways of addressing these concerns.29

  • Troup of Handicap Persons Twuzuzanye (THT)

In September 2007 THT was formed by a group of persons with disabilities in order to advocate and communicate changed behaviour towards disability through sport and socio-cultural activities.30

  • Umuryango Nyarwanda w’Abagore Bafite Ubumuga

Umuryango Nyarwanda w’Abagore Bafite Ubumuga, known as UNABU, was created in 2004 by and for girls and women with disabilities. Its focus is on ensuring that ‘women with disabilities enjoy equal and equitable opportunities and actively participate in the country’s development’. UNABU’s mission is to empower women with disabilities to become agents of change, to demand their rights and to affirm their dignity as human beings.

9.2 In the countries in Rwanda’s region (East Africa) are DPOs organised/coordinated at national and/or regional level?

The National Union of Disabilities Organisations of Rwanda (NUDOR) was formed in 2010, and serves as a platform for its 13-member organisation. NUDOR’s key activity is advocacy to ensure the realisation of equal rights, opportunities and participation for persons with disabilities, ensuring access to quality and appropriate education for all children with disabilities so that they may lead successful and fulfilled lives.31

9.3 If Rwanda has ratified the CRPD, how has it ensured the involvement of DPOs in the implementation process?

Rwanda has ensured involvement of DPOs in the process of implementation of the CRPD. Disability issues on a national level are handled by the Ministry of Local Government, through the NCPD as its affiliated institution. The Ministry of Local Government serves as a focal point for the National Council of Persons with Disabilities.

Since 2012 the Disability Coordination Forum has been established by NCPD and it meets on a quarterly basis.

The Ministry of Education is responsible for implementing the policy on inclusive education.

The Ministry of Health is responsible for providing healthcare services to persons with disabilities. However, accessibility remains limited due to long distances to the nearest health facility, an insufficient number of health workers, negative attitudes and the costs involved.32

9.4 What types of actions have DPOs themselves taken to ensure that they are fully embedded in the process of implementation?

The National Council of Persons with Disabilities, was created by the Constitution on 3 June 2003 and it was established by Law 03/2011 of 10 February 2011, determining its responsibilities, organisation and functioning. It is a forum for advocacy and social mobilisation on issues affecting persons with disabilities in order to build their capacity and ensure their participation in national development. In response, civil society organised itself into an umbrella organisation, the National Union of Disability Organisations of Rwanda (NUDOR), to serve as a coordinating and representative body for the movement and to build the capacity of member organisations.33

9.5 What, if any, are the barriers DPOs have faced in engaging with implementation?
  • Lack of expertise, capacity and skills among DPOs.
  • Limited knowledge about coordination and collaboration amongst the groups.
  • Lack of awareness among people with disabilities of their rights; hence there is a need to capacitate DPOs on the knowledge of human rights.
  • There is a need to sensitise the authorities especially at grass roots level about the rights and abilities of persons with disabilities.
  • Poor monitoring of programmes implemented by DPOs in the rural areas.
9.6 Are there specific instances that provide ‘best-practice34 models’ for ensuring proper involvement of DPOs?

The establishment of the National Council of Persons with Disabilities provided DPOs with a platform for advocacy, the promotion of the rights of the persons with disabilities and involvement in the formulation and implementation of laws. The presence of the NCPD members at grassroots and national levels also enables civil society organisations such as NUDOR to collaborate and relate with them at different levels to advocate the rights of persons with disabilities.

9.7 Are there any specific outcomes regarding successful implementation and/or improved recognition of the rights of persons with disabilities that resulted from the engagement of DPOs in the implementation process?

See questions 9.4 and 9.6 above.

9.8 Has your research shown areas for capacity building and support (particularly in relation to research) for DPOs with respect to their engagement with the implementation process?

The research has shown that there is a need for capacity building and support for DPOs. See question 9.5 above.

9.9 Are there recommendations that come out of your research as to how DPOs might be more comprehensively empowered to take a leading role in the implementation processes of international or regional instruments?
  • Coordination and collaboration: DPOs should be equipped with skills for coordination, collaboration and monitoring their programmes or projects.
  • Capacity of DPOs on legislation, namely, the CRPD, The Rwanda Disability Law 01/2007 and the Rwanda Constitution of 2003 (revised in 2015).
  • Research: DPOs are to be equipped with skills and resources to conduct their own research on persons with disabilities, including children under five years of age.
9.10 Are there specific research institutes in the region where Rwanda is situated (East Africa) that work on the rights of persons with disabilities and that have facilitated the involvement of DPOs in the process, including in research?

No.

10.1 Does Rwanda have a government department or departments that is/are specifically responsible for promoting and protecting the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities? If so, describe the activities of the department(s).

Under the Ministry of Local Government, the National Council of Persons with Disabilities is the public institution in charge of promoting and protecting the rights of persons with disabilities. Its main activities are advocacy and inclusion.

See question 9.3 above for more details.

11.1 Contemporary challenges of persons with disabilities in Rwanda (for example, in some parts of Africa ritual killing of certain classes of PWDs, such as people with albinism, occurs.

Some people in Rwanda have a negative mind-set and social attitudes towards persons with disabilities. Their potential and abilities sometimes are not recognised. Children with disabilities are seen as a source of shame and a curse, and are often hidden by their parents. Women with disabilities find it difficult to get married and they are more vulnerable to sexual abuse. They also suffer discrimination in the area of employment, particularly as far as economic empowerment, owning property and obtaining loans from banks are concerned.

11.2 Describe the contemporary challenges of persons with disabilities, and the legal responses thereto, and assess the adequacy of these responses to:
  • Access and accommodation

There are laws and policies aimed at addressing the challenge of access to accommodation by persons with disabilities. This includes Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007, relating to Protection of Disabled Persons in General. Article 5 provides that ‘[a] disabled person has the right to live in the family in the same conditions as others’.35 Article 16 of the law protecting disabled and former war combatants states that government has the responsibility of providing a residential home to the disabled war combatant who is in the first and second category if he or she cannot secure one.

The house should be constructed taking into consideration his or her disability and should be located near basic infrastructures such as roads, schools and health centres.

  • Access to social security

Article 50 of the Constitution states that ‘[t]he state, within the limits of its means and in accordance with the law, has the duty to undertake special actions aimed at the welfare of the needy survivors of the genocide against Tutsi’. Article 51 further states that ‘[t]he state has the duty to establish special measures facilitating the education of persons with disabilities. The state also has the duty, within its means, to undertake special actions aimed at the welfare of persons with disabilities.’

The government also has a large-scale development programme (Vision 2020 Umurenge Programme (VUP)) for targeted vulnerable groups. The direct financial support is provided to households with no adults able to participate in public works, including those of the elderly, child-headed households, households with chronically sick persons, lactating mothers and persons with disabilities.36

  • Access to public buildings

Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007 relating to protection of disabled persons in general provides that all buildings must be equipped with the necessary facilities to enable persons with disabilities have access to services therein. In particular, a public or private building meant to provide services to the public must provide passage ways for persons with disabilities so as to have easy access to services offered.37 On the ground, much more needs to be done to operationalise this law.

  • Access to public transport

Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007 relating to the protection of disabled persons in general provides that the state must adopt an appropriate programme to facilitate persons with disabilities in general to board public transport vehicles by requiring public transport vehicle owners to reserve seats and entrance doors for persons with disabilities.38 Again, the practical implementation of this law remains a challenge.

  • Access to education

Article 11 of Law 01/2007 OF 20 January 2007 relating to the protection of disabled persons in general provides that ‘[a] disabled person has the right to appropriate education in respect of the nature of his or her disability’.39 Article 10 of Law 27 of 2001 relating to the rights and protection of the child against violence also provides that the child has a right to education.40 Although much has been achieved, more effort is needed to secure inclusive education.

  • Access to vocational training

There is a pilot programme under the National Employment Programme, NCPD, which supports persons with disabilities to enrol in Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) for short courses at two centres. This is aimed at persons with hearing and visual impairments.41

  • Access to employment

Article 30 of the Constitution provides that ‘[e]veryone has the right to free choice of employment. All individuals, without any form of discrimination, have the right to equal pay for equal work.’ This is the principle, but many persons with disabilities remain on the margin.

  • Access to recreation and sport

Article 21 of Law 01/2007 OF 20 January 2007 relating to the protection of disabled persons in general provides that ‘[c]entres that cater for the disabled persons and educational institutions in general, are required to have special grounds meant for culture, entertainment and sports and trained tutors’. Disabled persons are entitled to join specialised associations related to sports, culture and entertainment42. An order of the Minister in charge of sports must determine the modalities of facilitating the disabled persons in matters related to participation in activities of culture, entertainment and sports.43

  • Access to justice

Article 29 of the Constitution guarantees that ‘[a]ll persons are equal before the law. They are entitled to equal protection of the law.’ Article 8 of Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007 relating to the protection of disabled persons in general guarantees that a person with a disability shall have the right to legal representation like any other person in the courts of law. The state must determine the modalities of providing legal aid to needy disabled persons who are not able to secure legal representation. Various organs are to facilitate disabled persons in the acquisition of the required services at any time it is considered necessary.44

11.3 Do people with disabilities have a right to participation in political life (political representation and leadership) in Rwanda?

Persons with disabilities have the right to vote like any other Rwandan, and the right to be elected in an administrative organ at village, district, provincial as well as national levels. 45

They are also represented in Parliament.

11.4 Are people with disabilities’ socio-economic rights, including right to health, education and other social services protected and realised in your country?

See question 11.2 above for education and other social services.

Articles 14 and 15 of Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007 relating to the protection of disabled persons in general provides that the government shall facilitate a disabled person to receive medical care and prosthesis and orthesis appliances where required. The government also has an obligation to provide medical care to a needy disabled person and also provide prosthesis and orthesis appliances if required.46

11.5 Specific categories experiencing particular issues/ vulnerability:
  • Women with disabilities

Girls and women with disabilities are marginalised on the basis of sex and their health status, and as a result are denied assets such as land. In most cases they find it difficult to get married and are vulnerable to sexual abuse. They are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence, especially at a younger age. They normally face social barriers such as stigma, discrimination and isolation.

  • Children with disabilities

Rwanda has several legislations about the rights of children and children with disabilities. This notwithstanding, children with disabilities still face challenges with regard to access to education, transport and health facilities. Most children with disabilities have to walk long distances to get to school, especially if there is no money for transport. It is very expensive for their parents and it takes a lot of time for them to accompany their children to and from school.

  • Other (for example, indigenous peoples)

The prevalence of HIV among persons with physical disabilities is reported to be higher than that of the rest of the Rwandese population. However, further research needs to be conducted with regard to other categories of disability.47

12.1 Are there any specific measures with regard to persons with disabilities being debated or considered in your country at the moment?

Rwanda is promoting an inclusive education model, the Special Needs Education Policy, for children with disabilities, especially learners with visual, hearing and intellectual impairments.

Persons with disabilities are encouraged to cast their votes in September to exercise their right to vote. With regard to access to free primary education, the parents who deny them their right to access education and hide them might be charged by the state.

12.2 What legal reforms are being raised? Which legal reforms would you like to see in Rwanda? Why?

Law 01/2007 of 20 January 2007 relating to the protection of disabled persons in general should more detailed about gender. The legislation should consider different needs of male and female persons with disabilities.


1. National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR) http://www.statistics.gov.rw/survey-period/fourth-population-and-housing-census-2012 (accessed 15 February 2018).

2. As above.

3. As above.

4. As above.

5. The Republic of Rwanda. ‘Initial Report of Rwanda on the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities’. (2015) http://www.minijust.gov.rw/fileadmin/Docu ments/International_Reports/Inintial_report_UNCRPD_-_Final_Version_08th_April_2015.pdf (accessed 16 February 2018).

6. As above.

7. ESCR Committee Concluding Observations on the 2nd to 4th periodic reports of Rwanda, adopted by the Committee at its 50th session, 29 April-17 May 2013: Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 10 June 2013, E/C.12/RWA/CO/2-4, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52d54c834.html (accessed 21 February 2018).

8. As above.

9. As above.

10. United Nations General Assembly Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. 14 March 2011, https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/G1111793.pdf (accessed 18 February 2018).

11. African Union African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights’ Consideration of Reports submitted by State Parties under Article 62 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights http://www.chr.up.ac.za/images/files/documents/ahrdd/rwanda/rwanda_concluding_observations_recommendations_2002_2004.pdf.(accessed 18 February 2018).

12. J Sikulibo ‘Access to justice and the international law standard’ LLM dissertation, University of Cape Town, 2009 https://www.memoireonline.com/06/10/3554/m_Access-to-justice-and-the-international-law-standards6.html (accessed 18 February 2018).

13. J Mattingly J & P Suubi ‘A study on children with disabilities and their right to education: Republic of Rwanda’ (2015) Education Trust https://www.unicef.org/esaro/Rwanda-children-with-disabilities-UNICEF-EDT-2016.pdf (accessed 19 February 2018).

14. National Council of Persons with Disabilities Act of 2011.

15. Children’s Rights and Protection Against Violence Act 27 of 2001 http://www.chr.up.ac.za/undp/domestic/docs/legislation_06.PDF (accessed 19 February 2018).

16. The Republic of Rwanda ‘Special Education and Inclusive Education Strategic Plan 2011-2015’ (2011) Ministry of Education http://www.hiproweb.org/fileadmin/cdroms/Inclusive_ Education 2014/StrategicPlanIERwanda20112015.pdf (accessed 19 February 2018).

17. The Republic of Rwanda. ‘Initial Report of Rwanda on the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities’. (2015). http://www.minijust.gov.rw/fileadmin/Docu ments/International_Reports/Inintial_report_UNCRPD_-_Final_Version_08th_April_2015.pdf (accessed 3 May 2018).

18. As above.

19. The Republic of Rwanda, Ministerial Orders (2009).

20. The Republic of Rwanda National Policy against Gender-Based Violence http://www.migeprof.gov.rw/fileadmin/_migrated/content_uploads/GBV_Policy-2_1_.pdf (accessed 11 December 2018).

21. Republic of Rwanda ‘Laws published in 2011’ http://www.parliament.gov.rw/uploads/tx_publications/Published_Laws_in__2011.pdf (accessed 16 February 2018).

22. The Republic of Rwanda Initial Report (n 17).

23. As above.

24. Sida ‘Disability rights in Rwanda’ December 2014 https://www.sida.se/globalassets/sida/eng/partners/human-rights-based-approach/disability/rights-of-persons-with-disabilities-rwanda.pdf (accessed 19 February 2018).

25. As above.

26. As above.

27. As above.

28. As above.

29. As above.

30. As above.

31. NUDOR ‘National Union of Disabilities of Organisations of Rwanda’ http://www.rencp.org/about/member-organizations-1/nudor-national-union-of-disabilities-organizations-of-rwanda/ (accessed 17 February 2018).

32. The Republic of Rwanda Initial Report (n 17).

33. Sida (n 24).

34. As above.

35. The Republic of Rwanda Initial Report (n 17).

36. As above.

37. As above.

38. The Republic of Rwanda Initial Report (n 17).

39. As above.

40. As above.

41. Republic of Rwanda ‘A study on children with disabilities and their right to education: Republic of Rwanda’ Education Development Trust 2016, https://www.unicef.org/esaro/Rwanda-children-with-disabilities-UNICEF-EDT-2016.pdf (accessed 17 February 2018).

42. The Republic of Rwanda Initial Report (n 17).

43. As above.

44. As above.

45. As above.

46. As above.

47. JB Munymana et al ‘Prevalence of HIV among people with physical disabilities in Rwanda’ (2014) 60 Central African Journal of Medicine 62-69.

>


  • Kedibone Chembe
  • Lecturer, Department of Jurisprudence, College of Law
  • Babatunde Fagbayibo
  • Associate Professor, Department of Public, Constitutional and International Law, College of Law, University of South Africa

  • K Chembe & B Fagbayibo ‘Country report: Republic of Mauritania’ (2018) 6 African Disability Rights Yearbook 184-212
    http://doi.org/10.29053/2413-7138/2018/v6n1a9
  • Download article in PDF

1.1 What is the total population of Mauritania?

According to the 2017 World Population Prospect report,1 Mauritania has a total population of 4 420 000 people.

1.2 Describe the methodology used to obtain the statistical data on the prevalence of disability in Mauritania. What criteria are used to determine who falls within the class of persons with disabilities in Mauritania?

A general census is used to obtain data on the prevalence of disability in Mauritania. The census questionnaire consists of a set of questions meant to solicit information about the household, including questions about disability, its causes and nature.2 In the 2013 census the following criteria were used in determining the class of persons with disabilities: motor disability; visual; deaf or mute; poly-handicap; physical; mental; and other disabilities.3

1.3 What is the total number and percentage of persons with disabilities in Mauritania?

According to the Initial Report, based on the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), submitted by Mauritania in 2017, approximately 33 920 of its inhabitants (that is, 0.96 per cent of the population) were reported to have one or the other form of disability.4 However, this calculation is based on the 2013 population figures of 3 537 368 inhabitants.

1.4 What is the total number and percentage of women with disabilities in Mauritania?

According to the 2017 Initial Report, there are 15 450 women with disabilities in Mauritania (which is about 3,5 per cent of its population based on the 2013 population figures of 3 537 368 inhabitants).

1.5 What is the total number and percentage of children with disabilities in Mauritania?

Children specifically below the age of 15 years represent 18,4 per cent of the total number of persons living with a disability (based on the 2013 population figures) in Mauritania.5

1.6 What are the most prevalent forms of disability and/or peculiarities to disability in Mauritania?

According to the 2013 General Census, the most prevalent form of disability is ‘motor disability’ with one in three people having this type of disability.6 The number of persons with disabilities disaggregated by types of disability and gender as per the 2013 Census include:

  • motor disability - 5 093 (33 per cent female); 6 343 (34,3 per cent male);
  • deaf/mute impairment - 2 234 (14,5 per cent female); 2 558 (13,8 per cent male);
  • visual impairment - 3 149 (20,4 per cent female); 3 704 (20,1 per cent male);
  • mental impairment - 1 845 (11,9 per cent female); 2 613(14,1 per cent male);
  • poly-handicap - 1 226 (7,9 per cent female); 1 331 (7,2 per cent male);
  • others - 1 903 (12,3 per cent female); 1 921 (10,4 per cent male).

 

2.1 What is the status of the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD) in Mauritania? Did Mauritania sign and ratify the CRPD? Provide the date(s).

Mauritania only acceded to the CRPD on 3 April 2012.7

2.2 If Mauritania has signed and ratified the CRPD, when was its country report due? Which government department is responsible for submission of the report? Did Mauritania submit its report? If so, and if the report has been considered, indicate if there was a domestic effect of this reporting process. If not, what reasons does the relevant government department give for the delay?

Mauritania’s country report was due in May 2014. However, the report was only submitted in January 2017.8 The Un Comité interministériel technique (a technical interministerial committee) is tasked with drafting reports and conducting follow-up of the implementation of the recommendations of the treaty bodies and the Universal Periodic Review (UPR).

Although Mauritania has already submitted its state report to the UN Committee, the report is yet to be considered.9

2.3 While reporting under various other United Nation’s instruments, or under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, or the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, did Mauritania also report specifically on the rights of persons with disabilities in its most recent reports? If so, were relevant ‘concluding observations’ adopted? If relevant, were these observations given effect to? Was mention made of disability rights in your state’s UN Universal Periodic Review (UPR)? If so, what was the effect of these observations/recommendations?
UN instruments10

Below is a summary of Mauritania’s reporting under UN instruments:

(a) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

Prior to the submission of the 2017 periodic report, Mauritania submitted its initial report,11 and the February 2012 combined second and third periodic report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW Committee).12 In these reports Mauritania reported on the issues of social security funds,13 and legislative measures undertaken for purposes of persons with disabilities. 14

In October 2017 a follow-up report was submitted that contains an update on the measures taken by the government of Mauritania to implement recommendations of the Concluding Observations of the CEDAW Committee and provisions of CEDAW.15 In terms of this report the following actions have been taken by Mauritania:

  • promotion and protection of the rights of the child and persons with disabilities;
  • cash transfer services for children with multiple disabilities, and financing of income-generating activities for hundreds of persons with disabilities; and
  • improvement of functional independence of persons with disabilities through the free distribution of technical aids.

The report is yet to be considered.

(b) International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (CRPD)

Mauritania submitted two reports prior to the 2017 report. The reports are the initial state report and the second, third, fourth and fifth periodic reports,16 and the seventh periodic report submitted to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD Committee). Mauritania reported on the issue of the National Social Security Fund and the Civil Servants’ Pension Fund schemes. No recommendations were made pertaining to disability in the Concluding Observations of the Committee.

In February 2017 Mauritania submitted its eighth to fourteenth periodic reports to the CERD Committee.17 In this report Mauritania highlighted national mechanisms adopted by the Ministry of Social Affairs, Children and the Family, the dissemination of the CRPD and measures taken to promote the rights of women, children, and persons with disabilities.

The CERD Committee has not yet considered the eighth to fourteenth periodic reports and, as such, there are no actioned recommendations during this reporting period.

(c) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)

In August 2009 Mauritania submitted its initial state report to the ESCR Committee.18 In the report Mauritania addressed issues of pension funds and highlighted the following:

  • Blindness is considered one of the most common disabilities, particularly among the disadvantaged groups of the population. The two principal causes of blindness are cataracts and trachoma. Half of the cataracts are treated by traditional means. Trachoma is rife, especially in the central and northern parts of the country.
  • Victims of work-related accidents who suffer a permanent partial disability are entitled to an incapacity pension if they are at least 15 per cent incapacitated. Depending on the degree of incapacity, the amount of the permanent partial incapacity pension is proportional to the pension to which the claimants would have been entitled in case of permanent total incapacity. The incapacity pension is paid in a lump sum if the degree of incapacity is less than 15 per cent. The sum is calculated by tripling the total amount of the pension, which must correspond to the victim’s degree of incapacity.
  • Where social protection is concerned, the national health and social policy must cover the funding of health care for the majority of the impoverished and marginalised. Social measures must improve the targeting, guidance and inclusion of vulnerable children and the care and inclusion of persons with disabilities.

In the Concluding Observations, no recommendations were made pertaining to the initial state report in relation to disability issues.

(d) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

In October 2015 Mauritania submitted its initial state report to the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.19 In this report Mauritania was requested to submit its response on the role and responsibilities of recruiters and their possible joint responsibility with the employer for claims and liabilities that may arise in connection with the implementation of the employment contract, including salaries and disability, death and repatriation allowances. However, Mauritania has not responded to this question, as evidenced by the initial report.

(e) Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

Mauritania submitted two reports prior to submitting the January 2017 report. The reports were the initial state report of January 2000 and the November 2007 second periodic report submitted to the CRC Committee. In these reports Mauritania discussed measures adopted to address issues of disability pertaining to children based on legislative, policy measures and programmes initiatives. The Mauritanian government also highlighted shortcomings in terms of education.

In its Concluding Observations to Mauritania on both reports, the CRC Committee made the following recommendations:

  • to develop a system of data collection and indicators consistent with the CRC;
  • to ensure that the situation of children with disabilities is adequately monitored in order to effectively assess their situation and needs; and;
  • to allocate resources for programmes dealing with issues of disability.

The Committee was also concerned about the occurrence of discrimination against children with disabilities, among other factors, and that measures adopted were insufficient in order to extend the coverage of assistance and rehabilitation of all children with disabilities, particularly in rural and remote areas.

In January 2017 Mauritania submitted its combined third to fifth periodic reports to the CRC Committee.20 These reports outline the country’s implementation of the Convention and highlights the progress made and the problems that still hamper the effective fulfilment of some obligations under the Convention. These include:

  • The responsibilities of the Ministry of Social Affairs, Children and the Family include the advancement of women and their integration in the development process, and the promotion and protection of the rights of the child, persons with disabilities and older persons.
  • There is the establishment of several organisations of persons with disabilities.
  • The Centre for the Protection and Social Integration of Children, the Centre for Early Childhood Training and the Centre for Training and Inclusion of Children with Disabilities have been receiving increased allocations to their budgets.
  • With a view to promoting and protecting the rights of women, children and persons with disabilities, Mauritania has strengthened its commitment by ratifying the relevant international conventions; adopting the regulations to implement the Order on Protection and Promotion of Persons with Disabilities.
  • There is a penalty of 15 years’ imprisonment for torture repeatedly committed against the child, or in cases where such abuse leads to
  • mutilation or permanent disability.

The Concluding Observations are yet to be finalised.21

(f) UN Universal Periodic Review

Mauritania was last reviewed by the Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review on 3 November 2015. The state reported that since the 2010 review, in 2012 it acceded to the CRPD and its Optional Protocol and provided training on these instruments to organisations dealing with disabilities. Furthermore, it reported that the government had established regional councils to deal with child protection issues that affect children with disabilities. In the recommendations formulated under the interactive dialogue and later adopted by the Human Rights Council, Mauritania’s accession to the CRPD was welcomed.22

Regional Instruments
  • African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

In its October 2001 report under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter), Mauritania reports that it has taken legislative measures

towards protecting the rights of persons with disabilities.23 In its Concluding Observations to Mauritania, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Commission) remained concerned that there are inadequate measures in place to address the special needs of vulnerable and minority groups such as the nomadic tribes, the elderly and persons with disabilities. However, the African Commission’s recommendations on disability are not substantive.24

In March 2017 Mauritania submitted its tenth to fourteenth report to the African Commission.25 The reports outline measures taken to implement the provisions of the African Charter. These are the following:

  • Public authorities have adopted a multi-sectoral approach in dealing with issues of disability. This approach has ensured the participation of persons with disabilities in cultural life.
  • In order to address challenges relating to the application of the Protocol, Mauritania has
  • implemented human rights promotion strategies, which were integrated, as a priority, into the post-2015-2030 agenda with the assistance of Technical and Financial Partners (TFPs). In this respect, support was provided to the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights and Humanitarian Action, the National Human Rights Commission, the Office of the Ombudsman, national courts and civil society organisations. One of the planned reforms for the implementation of the Protocol will focus on protecting the rights of persons with disabilities.
2.4 Was there any domestic effect on Mauritania’s legal system after ratifying the international or regional instruments in 2.3 above? Does the international or regional instrument that has been ratified require Mauritania’s legislature to incorporate it into the legal system before the instrument can have force in Mauritania’s domestic law? Have Mauritania’s courts ever considered this question? If so, cite the case(s).

The Mauritanian Constitution of 1991, as amended in 2006 and in 2012, enshrines in article 80 the principle that international treaties which have been duly ratified and promulgated have primacy over domestic legislation.

Mauritanian legislators have enacted several important laws aimed at aligning legislation with the provisions of relevant international human rights treaties. For instance, the CRPD has been fully domesticated in Mauritania through the enactment of Order 2006.043 of 23 November 2006 on Promotion and Protection of Persons with Disabilities and its two implementing decrees.26

Case law

There are no cases where Mauritanian courts have had to consider the question of domestication of international law in its national legal system.

2.5 With reference to 2.4 above, has the United Nation’s CRPD or any other ratified international instrument been domesticated? Provide details.

Order 2006.043 of 23 November 2006 on Promotion and Protection of Persons with Disabilities and its two implementing decrees were adopted after acceding to the CRPD. These concern the multi-partner council tasked with the advancement of persons with disabilities. The legislation further provides for the definition of disability (see 4.1).27

3.1 Does the Constitution of Mauritania contain provisions that directly address disability? If so, list the provision, and explain how each provision addresses disability.

The Mauritanian Constitution contains no specific provisions addressing disability.28

3.2 Does the Constitution of Mauritania contain provisions that indirectly address disability? If so, list the provisions and explain how each provision indirectly addresses disability.

The Constitution contains no provisions that indirectly refer to disability, except for the general inclusion of the right to equality.29

4.1 Does Mauritania have legislation that directly addresses issues relating to disability? If so, list the legislation and explain how the legislation addresses disability.
  • Order 2006.043 on Promotion and Protection of Persons with Disabilities and its two implementing decrees30

The Ordinance 2006-043 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities directly addresses issues related to disability. Decree 2013-129/PM/ sets out measures to prevent disabilities and in article 7 defines the disabled person as ‘any person who is unable to complete one or more activities of everyday life, as a result of permanent or occasional impairment of his mental or motor sensory functions of congenital or acquired origin’.

The Ordinance makes provision for special treatment of this group of persons. For instance, article 6 of the Ordinance on the Promotion and Protection of Persons with Disabilities requires that appropriate measures be taken to enable persons with disabilities to access and benefit from the general system of operation of society. According to article 24 of the Ordinance, local authorities and public and private bodies open to the public must adapt, in their area and according to international accessibility criteria, the buildings, roads, sidewalks, outdoor spaces, means of transport and communication. The latter should be done to enable persons with disabilities to access these areas, to move about, to use their services, and to benefit from their services.31

  • Civil Service Act 093-009

This Act provides civil servants with old-age pensions and, if necessary, a lifetime disability annuity, as provided for under the retirement system of the civil service pension fund, once they have accumulated 35 years of service after the age of 18, or when they reach the age of 60.32

  • Decree 009.98

In order to comply with international standards, the Mauritanian government adopted Decree 009.98 of 10 October 1998. This Decree sets out the responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and entrusts this Ministry with several tasks related to child health and survival. These tasks include the advancement of disabled persons.33

  • Act 2015.033 on the Prohibition of Torture34

The Act on the Prohibition of Torture provides penalties regarding disability. Subjecting a child to torture or barbarous acts is punishable by six years’ imprisonment. However, the penalty becomes 15 years’ imprisonment if torture is repeatedly committed against the child or if it leads to mutilation or permanent disability.

4.2 Does Mauritania have legislation that indirectly addresses issues relating to disability? If so, list the main legislation and explain how the legislation relates to disability.

Other legal mechanisms that indirectly address different forms of disability include the Personal Status Code, which prohibits early marriage; the Act making basic education compulsory from the age of six years; the Ordinance on the judicial protection of children; and the Decree on alternatives to detention for children in conflict with the law.35

5.1 Have the courts (or tribunals) in Mauritania ever decided on an issue(s) relating to disability? If so, list the cases and provide a summary for each of the cases with the facts, the decision(s) and the reasoning.

Nothing exists in this regard.

6.1 Does Mauritania have policies or programmes that directly address disability? If so, list each policy and explain how the policy addresses disability
  • Primary health-care policy

This policy deals with health-related issues of disabled persons. The policy identifies disabled persons as priority targets. It is aimed at making essential quality care available and accessible to the majority of the population that need it, particularly disabled persons.36

  • National Social Security Fund (CNSS)

The Ministry of Civil Service and Labour manages the social security system in Mauritania. The Fund plays an important role in the social welfare area by providing disability benefits in the event of an accident at work or an occupational disease. In 1998 there were more than 3 300 disability allowances. This fund is inclusive of the old age and disability pensions and benefits paid in the event of death, with over 6 000 new disability cases expected every year.37

  • National Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Centre

The National Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Centre is composed of a team of physiotherapists and specialised doctors and its orthopaedic, physiotherapy and follow-up services enable it to provide rehabilitation and surgical operations for persons with physical disabilities. As from 2017 the Centre annually conducts 10 000 consultations, administers 4 000 physiotherapy sessions and provides 100 surgical operations. The Ministry of Social Affairs, Children and the Family is responsible for funding the hospitalisation, surgical operations and medical evacuation of children with disabilities who come from poor families. Those parents that are under the national social security system receive partial reimbursement of these costs by the Budget and Accounts Department of the National Social Security Fund.38

  • The social safety net programmes for the most vulnerable social groups

The social safety net programmes involve the implementation of several projects and initiatives such as the Emel programme, school canteens and cash transfers. Cash transfers are utilised to care for and support destitute patients living with chronic diseases; promotes and protects the rights of children and persons with disabilities through financing of income-generating activities for hundreds of persons with disabilities; and to improve the functional independence of persons with disabilities through the free distribution of technical aids.39

  • Directorate for Persons with Disabilities

The Directorate for Persons with Disabilities was established by the Ministry of Social Affairs, Children and the Family. Numerous benefits for disabled children have emanated from work undertaken by the Directorate. This is evidenced by the fact that 337 deaf-mute children were enrolled in school; 300 wheelchairs and 800 crutches have been provided; and 400 white sticks or canes provided. Furthermore, 110 children with multiple disabilities have received care, with 38 individual micro-projects benefiting persons with various types of disabilities; including 18 micro-projects with 16 individual and two collective benefiting persons with various types of disability; and 58 micro-projects with 36 individual and 22 collective launched by associations for the benefit of their members. There are also 100 unemployed graduates with disabilities recruited by the civil service; 53 persons with various types of disability have received financial assistance; 200 housing plots were allocated to persons in need of housing; 103 persons with disabilities were assisted in Aleg, Kaédi, Kiffa and Néma; and 50 association officers trained in mounting and managing projects.40

  • Service for the disabled within the Department of Social Affairs of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs

The government has established a service for the disabled in the Department of Social Affairs of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs that deals with four categories of disabled persons: the blind, the deaf and dumb, the motor and mentally-disabled, and persons cured of leprosy. The service coordinates assistance for the disabled with a number of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs).41

  • Community-based rehabilitation programme

In dealing with disabled children the Department of Social Affairs has adopted a strategy for their integration and development. The strategy involves a community-based rehabilitation (CBR) programme. The purpose of this programme is to enable disabled children to locally find the basic essential services they need to become autonomous and lead a full and decent life. Measures have thus been taken to provide access to education, training and health services. In addition, the CBR programme undertakes ad hoc measures to help the parents of disabled children in need to provide for their schooling and health care.42

  • National Child Protection Strategy

The National Child Protection Strategy makes provision for several activities aimed at protecting children with disabilities.43

  • Poverty reduction strategy framework

The poverty reduction strategy framework is aimed at ensuring that safety nets are available and accessible for the most deprived groups, which include ‘children in situations of difficulty and those with physical and mental disabilities’.44

  • Joint Decision 096/MSAS/MEN

The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and Ministry of National Education through Joint Decision 096/MSAS/MEN of 13 June 1985 set up an experimental basic education school for blind children. The school was upgraded to an institute to cater not only for the blind but also for the deaf and dumb. The Ministries involved are tasked with seconding teachers to this establishment.45

6.2 Does Mauritania have policies and programmes that indirectly address disability? If so, list each policy and describe how the policy indirectly addresses disability.
  • Mauritania-UNICEF cooperation programme

The Mauritania-UNICEF cooperation programme is aimed at promoting an environment conducive to the protection of children, in particular the most vulnerable children. Training has been provided to several journalists who in turn take part in awareness-raising campaigns. The civil society cyber forum and the platform of non-state actors provide a framework for consultation and dialogue between NGOs and the government.46

  • National Human Rights Action Plan 2012-2020

In October 2012 a National Human Rights Action Plan was launched by the Prime Minister’s office.47 The Action Plan sets out goals and objectives that, amongst other objectives, include reinforcing international co-operation on human rights; strengthening the national human rights framework; protecting and safeguarding civil and political rights; and protecting and securing the rights of vulnerable persons, including persons with disabilities.48

7.1 Other than the ordinary courts and tribunals, does Mauritania have any official body that specifically addresses violations of the rights of people with disabilities? If so, describe the body, its functions and its powers.
  • The National Council for Children

The National Council for Children is an advisory body that has been set up to assist the state Secretariat. It is presided over by an adviser to the Prime Minister and is composed of representatives of the chief ministries concerned with children’s issues, as well as representatives of major organisations of civil society. Its functions include proposing measures to protect children from neglect, exploitation and the different forms of handicap and to strengthen the capacity of families to meet the needs of their children. In addition, the Council proposes measures to promote the care of disabled children and/or delinquent or abandoned children, and to strengthen the role of development associations in taking care of such children and furthering their education and training in cooperation with the departments concerned. The Council holds sessions bi-annually and submits a report at the end of each year to the Secretariat of State for the Status of Women in which it assesses the situation of children and puts forward proposals for their advancement.49

  • The Ministry of Social Affairs, Children, and the Family (MASEF)

The Ministry of Social Affairs, Children, and the Family (MASEF) is an institution tasked with monitoring and coordinating state policy on the promotion and protection of the rights of persons with disabilities.50 It includes a central management that is dedicated only to disabled persons. The missions of the department include coordination and implementation of legislation; developing and implementing strategies of protection; developing and executing programmes of rehabilitation and reintegration; supporting professional training; and setting up a database on disabled people.51 MASEF is also accessible to persons with disabilities to file complaints. In 2014 MASEF received two complaints, four fewer than in 2013. In addition, MASEF oversees social reintegration programmes for persons with disabilities.52

7.2 Other than the ordinary courts or tribunals, does Mauritania have any official body that, though not established to specifically address violations of the rights of persons with disabilities, can nonetheless do so? If so, describe the body, its functions and its powers.

See question 8 below.

8.1 Does Mauritania have a Human Rights Commission or an Ombudsman or Public Protector? If so, does its remit include the promotion and protection of the rights of people with disabilities? If your answer is yes, also indicate whether the Human Rights Commission or the Ombudsman or Public Protector of Mauritania has ever addressed issues relating to the rights of persons with disabilities.
  • Mauritania has the National Commission of Human Rights. This institution was established pursuant to article 97 of the Mauritanian Constitution. The Commission is an independent advisory body with observation, early warning and mediation functions that assesses compliance with human rights. The Commission can provide, at the request of the government or on its own initiative, an advisory opinion on general or specific issues, relating to the promotion and the protection of human rights to respect for individual and collective freedoms.53 The Commission is also responsible for dealing with reported violations of human rights and must take all the appropriate steps, in cooperation and coordination with the competent authorities.54
  • The Mauritania Commissioner for Human Rights, Poverty Alleviation and Integration, established by Decree 089/98 of 2 July 1998,55 is the result of government’s efforts to ensure the enjoyment of rights and the exercise of freedoms and improving the living conditions of the population in general and of the poorest, in particular. The programmes and policies falling under the mandate of the Office of the Commissioner include promoting and protecting human rights, and combating poverty and providing employment for members of vulnerable groups, which includes persons with disabilities.56 The Office of the Commissioner has also been involved in both rural and urban areas to set up safety nets to assist in the integration of disabled persons seeking work.57

The National Commission for Human Rights, Humanitarian Action and Civil Society, established under Decree 247-2008/PM, is administratively and financially autonomous.58 In terms of the Decree, the Commission’s mandate involves drafting and implementing the national policy for the promotion, defence and protection of human rights through the promotion and dissemination of information on human rights, and the protection and defence of human rights.59 The Commission also drafts and implements action plans and programmes for vulnerable social groups in order to better promote and protect their rights. In addition, the Commission is tasked with investigating cases of violations of human rights and humanitarian law that are submitted to it by other institutions, including the National Human Rights Commission.60

9.1 Does Mauritania have organisations that represent and advocate the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities? If so, list each organisation and describe its activities.

Mauritania does have organisations or associations that represent and advocate the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities.61 These associations are the following:

  • Association promotion et enseignement des aveugles

This is the Promotion and Teaching of the Blind Association and the grant received by the association was MRO 600 000.

  • Association Mauritanienne des déficients auditifs et de la voix

This is the Hearing Aids and Voice of the Weak Mauritanian Association, and it received a grant of MRO 1 700 000.

  • Association Nationale des aveugles de Mauritanie

This is the National Association of the Blind of Mauritania, and it received a grant of MRO 2 383 000.

  • Association mauritanienne des handicapés de la lèpre

This is the Mauritanian Association of the Handicapped and Leprosy, and it received a grant of MRO 779 500.

  • Assistance des nécessiteux

This is the Assistance to the Needy Association, and it received a grant of MRO 20 000.

  • Association des femmes handicapées pour la solidarité

This is the Association of Women with Disabilities for Solidarity and it received a grant of MRO 790 000.

  • Regroupement Mauritanien des femmes handicapées

This association deals with women with disabilities, and it received a grant of MRO 812 055.

  • Association des diplômes handicapés

This is the Association of Disabled Graduates, and it received a grant of MRO 992 911.

  • Association Mauritanienne Assistance des Handicapés

This is an association that provides assistance to the disabled, and it received a grant of MRO 3 641 020.

  • Association mauritanienne des hémophiles

This is the Mauritanian Association of Haemophiliacs, and it received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • Association mauritanienne pour l’insertion des aveugles

This is the Mauritanian Association for the Integration of the Blind, and it received a grant of MRO 728 000.

  • Association mauritanienne secours des lépreux

This is an association that assists with the care of lepers, and it received a grant of MRO 200 000.

  • Association développement social en Mauritanie

This is the Mauritanian Association of Social Development, and it received a grant of MRO 2 050 000.

  • Assistance des handicapés pour le développement

This association deals with the provision of assistance to disabled persons for the purposes of their development, and it received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • Forum des sourds

This is the Forum of the Deaf, and it received a grant of MRO 2 830 000.

  • Association des jeunes handicapés aveugles

This is an association of blind disabled youth, and it received a grant of MRO 553 500.

  • Organisation communautaire pour la promotion des handicapés

This is a community organisation for the promotion of disabled persons, and it received a grant of MRO 400 000.

  • Organisation insertion des albinos

This is an organisation for the integration of persons with albinism into society, and it received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • Association mauritanienne pour le secours de l’enfant handicapé

This is the Mauritanian association for the rescue of disabled children, and it received a grant of MRO 460 000.

  • Association mauritanienne pour la Promotion des Handicapés moteurs

The association promotes the interests of disabled persons, and it received a grant of MRO 1 163 000.

  • Secours des handicapés

The association deals with the relief of people with disabilities, and it received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • Association volonté et développement

This is the willingness and development association and it received a grant of MRO 690 000.

  • Association appui à l’éducation des enfants sourds muets et handicapés

This is an association that provides support for the education of deaf, dumb and disabled children, and it received a grant of MRO 510 000.

  • Association Aziza

This association received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • Association mauritanienne pour la santé et les handicapés

This is the Mauritanian Association for Health and the Disabled, and it received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • Association mauritanienne des femmes handicapées

This is the Mauritanian Association of Women with Disabilities, and it received a grant of MRO 600 000.

  • Association mauritanienne pour l’insertion des enfants handicapées à l’école

This is the Mauritanian Association for the Integration of Children with Disabilities at School, and it received a grant of MRO 784 000.

  • Association ressortissants des mahadras

This is the National Association of the Mahadras and it received a grant of MRO 200 000.

  • RBC Handicapés

This is the RBC disabled association, and it received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • Association développement des personnes handicapées

This is the association that promotes the development of people with disabilities and it received a grant of MRO 200 000.

  • Association Besma

This association received a grant of MRO 576 400.

  • Association Elmoustakbel

This association received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • Association secours enfants

This is a child relief association and it received a grant of MRO 150 000.

  • FEMANPH

The Mauritanian Federation of National Associations of People with Disabilities (Fédération Mauritanienne des Associations Nationales de Personnes Handicapées) has 45 associations, with 18 specifically focusing on disability and eight specialising in other themes, such as education. The association received a grant of MRO 6 640 000.

  • FEMHANDIS

The Mauritanian Federation of Sports for the Disabled (Federación Mauritana de Deportes para las Personas Discapacitadas) received a grant MRO 500 000.

  • Association mauritanienne pour l’Intégration et la Réhabilitation des Enfants et Adolescents Déficients Intellectuels (AMIREADI)

This is the Mauritanian Association for the Integration and Rehabilitation of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities. The association received a grant of MRO 6 443 355. On the International Day of Persons Living with Disabilities, 3 December 2015, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in collaboration with its partners Association pour la Lutte contre la Pauvreté et le sous-développement (ALPD) and AMIREADI held a ‘questions and answers’ session for the urban refugees committee and the representatives of refugees living with disabilities in Nouakchott.62 The session was aimed at strengthening the inclusion of persons with disabilities and promote their full and equal enjoyment of rights and freedoms in Mauritania. It also gave urban refugees living with disabilities an opportunity to discuss gaps and gather information about existing services for people with disabilities in Mauritania.63

9.2 In the country’s region are DPOs organised/coordinated at national and/or regional level?

More than 6 028 NGOs operate nationally in Mauritania and 57 of them operate internationally.64 The civil society cyber forum and the platform of non-state actors, as stated in question 6.2 above, provide the framework for consultation and dialogue between NGOs and the government.

9.3 If Mauritania has ratified the CRPD, how has it ensured the involvement of DPOs in the implementation process?

The involvement of NGOs in the implementation of disability rights takes place through several measures. One measure is through the activities of the Multi-Sectoral National Council for the Promotion of People with Disabilities, a Council that assists the Ministry of Social Affairs, Childhood and the Family in terms of coordination and technical control of different interventions. Such interventions include the rehabilitation and integration of persons with disabilities. In carrying out its duties, the Council may appeal to any person or organisation whose participation it deems useful. The implication of this is that the Council may request to work with relevant NGOs in achieving its objectives.65

Another measure is through the activities of the Interdepartmental Technical Committee. This Committee is responsible for the development of the state reports relating to international legal instruments, and one of the key requirements is that before it finalises or validates the report, it must take into account the recommendations of the civil society and parliamentary bodies (see 9.5 below).66

The Department of Social Affairs of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs also involves a number of local NGOs in implementing its mandate (refer to question 6.1 for further discussion).

The National Council for Children is also composed of representatives of major organisations of civil society (refer to question 7.1 for further discussion).

Finally, the dissemination of human rights instruments such as the CRPD ratified by Mauritania involves sustained awareness campaigns carried out by NGOs.67 That may explain why the NGOs working in the field of human rights have budgets allocated to them annually (see question 9.1 above for the 2015 budget allocations to various associations).

9.4 What types of actions have DPOs themselves taken to ensure that they are fully embedded in the process of implementation?

In Mauritania, several civil society organisations are active in issues concerning persons with disabilities. Each organisation usually focuses on a specific type of disability (see question 9.1 above for a list of various associations dealing with issues of disability). These associations deal with persons with disabilities generally although, to the extent that their resources allow, they also engage in targeted advocacy for children with disabilities.68

For instance, the Association for Social Development in Mauritania has opened a workshop that makes tricycles and wheelchairs for women and children living with permanent physical disabilities. Another NGO, Terre des Hommes, covers the costs of treatment and medical evacuation for some children with disabilities upon request by the parents.69

Another NGO, The Health and Development of Women and Children with Disabilities, with support from the Commission for Human Rights, launched a programme focused on reintegrating women and children back into active life following a study that was conducted on street begging by persons with disabilities.70 The study had identified 110 individuals engaging in this activity, some of them being children. The NGO has also offered financial assistance to 25 unemployed graduates with disabilities.71 In addition, it has supported vocational training for blind persons, thereby providing them with an alternative to street begging.72

9.5 What, if any, are the barriers DPOs have faced in engaging with implementation?

The identified barriers include the lack of human and financial resources, and low specialisation of actors dealing with human rights issues.73

9.6 Are there specific instances that provide ‘best-practice models’ for ensuring proper involvement of DPOs?

Mauritania has numerous NGOs that are hands-on in tackling matters concerning persons with disabilities. A ‘best practice model’ by far is the willingness of Mauritanians to fund NGOs that actively partake in the promotion of the human rights of persons with disabilities. This not only assists the NGOs, but also motivates them to continue assisting government. For instance, in 2015 a total amount of MRO 38 743741 was allocated to 37 associations. Another ‘best practice model’ is the involvement of NGOs in the process of drafting reports. Recommendations by civil society usually are taken into account during this process (see question 9.3 above). Even though the recommendations are non-binding on the inter-departmental committee, they certainly assist the committee in identifying gaps and challenges pertaining to issues relating to persons with disabilities since they work at grass roots level.

9.7 Are there any specific outcomes regarding successful implementation and/or improved recognition of the rights of persons with disabilities that resulted from the engagement of DPOs in the implementation process?

See questions 9.4 above.

9.8 Has your research shown areas for capacity building and support (particularly in relation to research) for DPOs with respect to their engagement with the implementation process?

The research has shown areas for capacity building and support in relation to research (see question 9.5 and question 9.6 below).

9.9 Are there recommendations that come out of your research as to how DPOs might be more comprehensively empowered to take a leading role in the implementation processes of international or regional instruments?

Yes.

  • proactive targeting of DPOs by the Multi-Sectoral National Council throughout the implementation of the 2016-2020 action plan;
  • continuous capacity building of DPOs on the CRPD by government agencies involved with reporting and implementing measures on the rights of disabled persons;
  • broad collaboration amongst DPOs and between DPOs and other governmental orgnanisations tasked with dealing with human rights of persons with disabilities;
  • resourcing DPOs to conduct research that can provide evidence based information; and
  • organising a specific national survey on persons with disabilities in order to have reliable and comprehensive data on this vulnerable segment of the population.
9.10 Are there specific research institutes in the region where Mauritania is situated that work on the rights of persons with disabilities and that have facilitated the involvement of DPOs in the process, including in research?

None.

10.1 Does Mauritania have a government department or departments that is/are specifically responsible for promoting and protecting the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities? If so, describe the activities of the department(s).

See question 7.1 for a discussion on the Ministry of Social Affairs, Children and the Family (MASEF) and question 8.1 for a discussion on the National Commission for Human Rights, Humanitarian Action and Civil Society. In addition to these institutions, the Mauritanian government also put in place the MultiSectoral National Council that is also responsible for promoting and protecting the rights of persons with disabilities.

The Multi-Sectoral Council is entrusted with assisting the Ministry of Social Affairs, Childhood and the Family in terms of coordination and technical control of different interventions to the rehabilitation and integration of persons with disabilities.74 Apart from assisting, the National Council can give an opinion on issues relating to the promotion of people with disabilities and the prevention of disability submitted by the Department.75 In accordance with its mission of the promotion of persons with disabilities, the Council has developed a five-year action plan (2016-2020) that revolves around several areas concerning persons with disabilities.76 In terms of the Council’s May 2016 report on the 2016-2020 action plan, the allocated budget for implementation purposes is MRO 1 049 750 000.77

11.1 Contemporary challenges of persons with disabilities in Mauritania (for example, in some parts of Africa ritual killing of certain classes of PWDs, such as people with albinism, occurs.

There are no reports of governmental or societal discrimination against persons with disabilities in Mauritania.

11.2 Describe the contemporary challenges of persons with disabilities, and the legal responses thereto, and assess the adequacy of these responses to:
  • Access and accommodation

In Mauritania’s initial report of January 2001 to the CRC Committee, government reported that the National Council for Children was tasked with proposing measures to protect children from neglect and ways to strengthen the capacity of families to meet the needs of their children.78 In order to cater for the latter objective, the Department of Social Affairs adopted a strategy known as the Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme. This programme aims at helping the parents of disabled children in need to provide for their schooling and health care, and to enable disabled children to find locally the basic essential services they need in order to become autonomous and lead a full and decent life.79 However, the Committee in its Concluding Observations to Mauritania, while noting the community-based rehabilitation programme, expressed concerns about the large number of children with disabilities who remain institutionalised, and the general lack of resources and specialised staff for these children and the absence of support for their families.80

  • Access to social security

The competence to regulate issues of social security is the exclusive function of the legislature in terms of article 57 of the Mauritanian Constitution. The legislature promulgated the Labour Code and the Act establishing the Civil Pension Fund.81 For purposes of implementing these laws, the government established various social security systems. These systems are managed by the National Social Security Fund for civil servants (see question 6.1 above); the health insurance managed by the National Health Insurance Fund for civil servants, military personnel and parliamentarians; and the National Occupational Health Office that is tasked with promoting and maintaining the physical, mental and social welfare of workers. Children that are dependants of persons insured under one of these systems benefit from social security.82

In its February 2012 combined second and third periodic report to the CEDAW Committee, the Mauritanian government reported that a woman duly certified as permanently totally incapacitated is entitled to a total disability pension equivalent to 85 per cent of the average monthly wage, increased by 50 per cent if she requires the assistance of a third party. A woman who is permanently partially incapacitated due to an industrial accident is entitled to a disability pension if she is at least 15 per cent disabled. Depending on the degree of disability, the amount of the permanent partial disability pension is proportional to the pension to which the victim would have been entitled had she been totally incapacitated. Where the degree of disability is less than 15 per cent, a lump sum benefit is paid.83

  • Access to public buildings

Article 24 of Order 2006.043 requires the state, local governments and public and private institutions to take measures that ensure that buildings are accessible to persons with disabilities (see 4.1 for a discussion).84 In terms of the decree, a building is deemed accessible to persons with disabilities if they can enter, move easily, and benefit from all the functions offered by the building or the designed installations.85

In terms of the Council’s May 2016 Report on the 2016-2020 action plan, most existing public buildings such as mosques, schools, health centres, hospitals, departments, fields, and houses of shows, are not accessible to people with reduced mobility.86 However, projects exist aimed at constructing ramp access, disabled-friendly office doors, bathrooms and sidewalks for buildings in Nouakchott and in the Wilaya. The estimated budget allocated for the implementation of this plan is MRO 40 000 000.87

  • Access to public transport

As in the case of access to public buildings, article 24 of Order 2006.043 requires government to provide means of public transportation to the disabled person.88

It was reported in the 2016-2010 action plan that decent access for persons with disabilities to the public means of transport is not available. However, government has planned campaigns for the promotion of accessibility for people with disabilities to transportation with an emphasis on ease of access and security for the disabled. An estimated budget of 3 000 000 has been allocated to achieve this.89

Awareness campaigns on access to buildings and transport targeting the different actors concerned by the issue of accessibility have been allocated an estimated budget of MRO 10 000 000.90

  • Access to education

Act 2001-054 of 19 July 2001 makes primary education mandatory and establishes the relevant rules, as well as the penalties applicable in the case of a failure to respect these rules. Article 1 of the Act makes primary education mandatory for all Mauritanian children ‘of both sexes, between 6 and 14 years of age, for a period of at least six years’.

From the Mauritanian initial report to the CRC Committee, measures have been taken to provide access to education, training and health services to children with disabilities.91 In addition, the community-based rehabilitation programme undertakes ad hoc measures to help the parents of disabled children in need to provide for their schooling and health care.92 The latter was supplemented by a Joint decision 096/MSAS/MEN of 13 June 1985 of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and Ministry of National Education, which set up an experimental basic education school for blind children (see question 6.1 above). The Mauritanian government in the same report notes some shortcomings in terms of education. These include low school enrolment rates among girls as compared to boys; sharp regional disparities in school enrolment; the mother and child situation; and assistance to the disabled and to children in difficulties.93

The government has also set up a centre of training and social promotion of children with disabilities in line with Decree 142/2014. The centre’s missions include the training of children with special educational needs in relation to a disability or disabling illness, and the training of trainers in sign language and Braille writing. The centre is also involved with the development of modules for teaching and management of children with disabilities; the strengthening of the capacities of teachers for integrated education; and the initiation of parents of blind children to Braille writing.94

With all the efforts listed above, the levels of education of disabled people are as follows: Nearly one in two persons with disabilities is without education; only 12,9 per cent have undergone primary education; only 6,7 per cent have a general secondary education; and 56,07 per cent of women living with disabilities have no level of education compared to 44,09 per cent among men.95

In terms of the 2016-2010 implementation action plan, there are teaching materials adapted to the needs of 1 500 children with sensory, visual and intellectual disabilities; 200 teachers have received training; and 24 specialised teaching classes have been established.96

  • Access to vocational training

Article 4 of Act 98-007 of 20 January 1998 on technical and vocational training stipulates that technical and vocational training is the responsibility of the state. The state guarantees equal access for all vocational training. Special arrangements must be made for disabled persons.

In 1996 the Association for the Mentally Handicapped opened a training centre for mentally-handicapped children and adolescents. The activities in the centre include child guidance, plastic arts, sewing and embroidery, cookery and activities involving psychomotor skills. There are 32 mentally-handicapped young people comprising eight girls and 24 boys at the Centre.97 Training is provided by six specialised Mauritanian educators.

The 2016 report on the 2016-2020 action plan revealed that persons with disabilities face numerous problems in vocational training such as the lack of training facilities available. An integrated vocational training complex that is accessible to different categories of disability has been built and equipped, with an estimated budget of MRO 60 000 000,. Ten existing training centres are available and there are five supported initiatives with an estimated budget of MRO 10 000 000.98

  • Access to employment

The Mauritanian government adopted Decree 2015/062 relating to the recruitment of 5 per cent quota of people with disabilities, with the aim of guaranteeing equal access to employment opportunities. The government has recruited more than 100 unemployed graduates of persons with disabilities in the public service and has created a Multi-Sectoral Council for the promotion of persons with disabilities.99 Despite these recruitments, the majority of people with disabilities are self-employed (59,7 per cent). A further breakdown reveals that disabled persons are mostly temporary private employees (14,8 per cent) or public employees (13 per cent). The lowest proportions are found among caregivers (3,8 per cent), employers (3,5 per cent) and apprentices (0,6 per cent).100 Technical and vocational training plays an important role as it prepares pupils for employment and the furthering of their technical or vocational education.

The 2016-2020 implementation action plan report outlined challenges regarding employment faced by persons with disabilities. The majority of persons with disabilities face discrimination in employment, and work stations are not equipped with proper offices and doors, measures that are central to their needs. In addition, they do not have access to credit, a factor that is essential for facilitating

their integration into active life.101 To address these issues, government organised open days on the employment of persons with disabilities in Mauritania, resulting in the sensitisation of 200 public and private operators.102

  • Access to recreation and sport

There are associations dealing with sport issues pertaining to persons with disabilities. These associations are governed by Law 64.098 of 9 June 1964 amended by Law 73.007 of 23 June 1973 and by Law 73.157 of 2 July 1973.103 On request, the associations can benefit from tax exemptions on equipment to carry out their activities, based on a declaration that demonstrates the public usefulness of such equipment.104

The 2016-2020 implementation action plan report indicates the following as gaps: a lack of sports infrastructure; a lack of technical staff and specialised equipment in the field of sports for persons with disabilities and recreation; and a lack of means for the operation and management of the disability sport federation.105 To address these challenges an estimated budget of MRO 10 000 000 was allocated for training supervisors for the development of different sports for persons with disabilities. The Multi-Sector National Council managed to organise 10 cultural activities and 10 leisure activities that were carried out for the benefit of persons with disabilities. In terms of organising sport competitions, with an estimated budget of MRO 6 000 000 the Council managed to organise 20 supported national competitions.106 For purposes of organising specific equipment for persons with disabilities for the different sports, the estimated budget allocated for this purpose was MRO 20 000 000.107

  • Access to justice

Article 6 of the Ordinance on the promotion and the protection of persons with disabilities requires the Mauritanian government to take appropriate measures to enable persons with disabilities access to the general system for the operation of the society. Within this framework, the Department of Justice has organised several workshops for the training of civil servants in the justice sector in order to equip them with the skills to assist persons with disabilities with easier access to the justice system. In addition to physical access, intellectual access is also made available through the offices of litigants who provide their services to persons with disabilities. The aspect of financial access is also taken into account, allowing each person suffering from a disability and who is destitute to benefit from legal aid.108

The Department of Justice periodically organises information seminars and awareness campaigns for all public servants working in the field of justice including court officials and the police. The CRPD and other relevant laws are made available to the target audience.109

Persons with disabilities are provided with legal aid during and after a trial in the execution of decisions by the courts. They also receive legal assistance in civil matters at any stage of the process, whether appearing in court as a plaintiff or defendant. Persons with disabilities are also granted assistance in terms of costs.110 Legal aid is also granted for the execution of judgments and for the exercise of the right to appeal.111

11.3 Do people with disabilities have a right to participation in political life (political representation and leadership) in Mauritania?

Article 3 of the Mauritanian Constitution provides:

The suffrage can be direct or indirect, in the conditions specified by the law. It is always universal, equal, and secret. All the citizens of the Republic, of majority of both sexes, enjoying their civil and political rights, are electors. The law favours the equal access of women and of men to the electoral mandate and elective functions.

Although article 3 applies to everyone, persons with disabilities do not benefit from this provision in terms of their right to vote, to self-represent and to access political and administrative responsibilities of the country. In terms of the 2016-2020 plan of action, persons with disabilities do not have access to voting stations; the ballots are not codified in Braille in order to accommodate persons with visual impairments to enable them to also vote in secret; and there is a lack of legal representation for persons with intellectual disabilities.112

The Multi-Sector National Council has an estimated budget of MRO 6 000 000 for organising workshops to create awareness of politicians on self-representation and highlight the participation of people with disabilities. In this regard three workshops have been organised.113

11.4 Are people with disabilities’ socio-economic rights, including right to health, education and other social services protected and realised in Mauritania?

With regard to education and other social services, see question 11.2 above.

With regard to discussions on health, see question 6.1 above.

In terms of the 2016-2020 action plan, the Multi-Sector National Council reported that control programmes on blindness, mental health, a national orthopaedic and functional rehabilitation centre, and the granting of a cash transfer for taking charge of the health of children with multiple disabilities have been put in place.114 However, gaps were also highlighted. These include a lack of support specific to persons with disabilities, and a lack of access of women to reproductive health care.

To breach these gaps, the following measures were undertaken as outlined in the 2016-2020 action plan:

  • An estimated budget of MRO 5 000 000 was allocated for purposes of conducting training sessions for doctors and nurses for the better management of the Hemophilia disease, through which 50 doctors and 100 nurses were trained.115
  • An amount of MRO 20 000 000 was allocated for the training of specialists in the field of manufacturing devices and technical assistance for motor-disabled and visually-impaired persons. Consequently, 20 prosthetics and 20 technical wheelchairs, canes and crutches were manufactured.
  • An estimated amount of MRO 30 000 000 was made available for the purposes of training physiotherapists for the rehabilitation of disabled persons, and 20 physiotherapists have been trained.
  • The estimated amount of MRO 4 000 000 was also allocated for holding campaigns for women’s free access to reproductive health care.116
  • Persons with disabilities receive free prosthetics and orthotics.
  • For the training of speech therapists and prosthetics for hearing disabilities, an estimated amount of MRO 20 000 000 was allocated, and 10 speech pathologists together with 10 prosthetists have been trained.
11.5 Specific categories experiencing particular issues/ vulnerability:
  • Women with disabilities

In its combined second and third periodic report to the CEDAW Committee, the Mauritanian government stated that women’s poverty takes on different forms. Problems related to a lack of employment or lack of ownership of factors of production relating to land and livestock resulted in health problems such as disability or a lack of access to medical care.117

In their 2017 initial report on CRPD, it was stated that 56,07 per cent of women living with disabilities have no level of education compared to 44,09 per cent among men.

  • Children with disabilities

For gaps regarding children with disabilities, see question 11.2.

  • Other (for example, indigenous peoples)

In October 2015 Mauritania submitted its initial state report to the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.118 Prior to submitting its initial report, the Mauritanian government was presented with a list of issues to address in the report. These included the role and responsibilities of recruiters and their possible joint responsibility with the employer for claims and liabilities that may arise in connection with the implementation of the employment contract, including salaries and disability, death and repatriation allowances.119 However, Mauritania has not responded to this question, as evidenced by the initial report.

12.1 Are there any specific measures with regard to persons with disabilities being debated or considered in Mauritania at the moment?

Refer to question 11 above. In addition, the Multi-Sector National Council highlighted the issue of general census in Mauritania by noting that the official statistics of the general 2013 census highlights that 0,96 per cent of the entire population are persons with disabilities. However, according to the Council for this census, no specific survey was conducted regarding persons with disabilities. Therefore, the Council stated the importance of organising a specific national survey on persons with disabilities in order to have reliable and comprehensive data on this population.

12.2 What legal reforms are being raised? Which legal reforms would you like to see in Mauritania? Why?

Government has undertaken the following laws:

  • the adoption of Order 2006/043 relative to the promotion and protection of persons with disabilities;
  • the ratification in 2012 of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities;
  • the adoption in 2015 of Decree 2015/062, which relates to the recruitment quota for disabled persons (5 per cent);
  • Act 2015.033 on the Prohibition of Torture, which stipulates a penalty of 15 years’ imprisonment for acts of torture against a child, especially if it leads to mutilation or permanent disability.

However, a number of reforms still need to be undertaken in order to ensure that persons with disabilities enjoy quality access to available rights in Mauritania. These include:

  • The quota for employment has to be increased. The current 5 per cent is too small to make any effective impact on reducing the levels of unemployment among persons living with disabilities in Mauritania. It is suggested that this figure be raised incrementally every five years. The enabling legislation to this effect should also apply to the private sector in this respect.
  • There is a need for enabling laws that make the construction of disabled-friendly facilities (ramps, lifts, and so forth) mandatory in public buildings.
  • Laws governing the conduct of census have to be amended to allow for organising specific national surveys of persons living with disabilities. The purpose of this is to have comprehensive data and an understanding of the issues affecting this vulnerable segment of the population.
  • National education policies and legislation should be further enabled to encourage the training of special needs teachers. In this respect, bursaries and scholarships should be made available to interested candidates, with financial incentives provided for employed educators in this field.
  • The government should make more resources available for social welfare grants to persons living with disabilities.
  • Civil society should be well integrated into government processes around the drafting and implementation of policies on persons living with disabilities. This should include their mandatory inclusion in the activities of government departments tasked with reporting to international bodies and other national activities. This will also require a statutory provision that stipulates financial and capacity development programmes for civil society.
  • There is a need for the development of national programmes that provide specific assistance to schools and NGOs operating in rural areas that are involved in educating and providing special care for the disabled.

 


1. UN Population Division World population prospects: 2017 revision population database https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/publications/Files/WPP2017_DataBooklet.pdf (accessed 3 March 2018).

2. Mauritania Office National de la Statistique (ONS) ‘Recensement général de la population et de l’habitat, 2013’ http://www.ons.mr/images/RGPH2013/Chapitre13_Femmes_fr.pdf (accessed 3 March 2018) (translated version).

3. As above.

4. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRPD%2fC %2fMRT%2f1&Lang=en (accessed 1 March 2018) (translated version).

5. Mauritania Office National de la Statistique (n 2).

6. As above.

7. United Nations Treaty Collection ‘Ratification status for CRPD’ https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV15&chapter=4&clang=_n (accessed 28 December 2017).

8. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Reporting status for Mauritania’ http://tbin ternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=MRT&Lang=EN (accessed 12 February 2018).

9. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘CRPD future sessions’ http://tbinter net.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/SessionDetails1.aspx?SessionID=1204&Lang=en (accessed 18 February 2018). See also http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/ treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=4&DocTypeID=22 (accessed 18 February 2018).

10. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Ratification, Reporting and Documentation for Mauritania’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Countries.aspx (accessed 18 February 2018).

11. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CEDAW/C/MRT/1’http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW %2fC%2fMRT%2f1&Lang=en (accessed 22 February 2018).

12. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Combined second and third periodic reports, CEDAW/C/MRT/2-3’ https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G13/413/87/PDF/G1341387.pdf?OpenElement (accessed 22 February 2018).

13. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on the Initial Report of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania adopted at its thirty-eighth session from 14 May-1 June 2007’ http://tbinter net.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fMRT %2fCO%2f1&Lang=en (accessed 22 February 2018).

14. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Combined second and third periodic reports, CEDAW/C/MRT/2-3’ https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G13/413/87/PDF/G1341387.pdf?OpenElement (accessed 22 February 2018).

15. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Addendum of follow-up report to the Concluding Observations on the combined second and third periodic reports, CEDAW/C/MRT/CO/2-3/Add.1’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx? symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fMRT%2fCO%2f2-3%2fAdd.1&Lang=en (accessed 22 February 2018).

16. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report and the second, third, fourth and fifth periodic reports, CERD/C/330/Add.1’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD%2fC%2f330%2fAdd.1&Lang=en (accessed 22 February 2018).

17. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Eighth to fourteenth periodic reports, CERD/C/MRT/8-14’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Down load.aspx?symbolno=CERD%2fC%2fMRT%2f8-14&Lang=en (accessed 22 February 2018).

18. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, E/C.12/MRT/1’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2 fMRT%2f1&Lang=en (accessed 22 February 2018).

19. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CMW/C/MRT/1’ https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/271/03/PDF/G1527103.pdf?Open Element (accessed 22 February 2018).

20. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: third to fifth periodic reports, CRC/C/MRT/3-5’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?sym bolno=CRC%2fC%2fMRT%2f3-5&Lang=en (accessed 24 February 2018).

21. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Reporting status for Mauritania’ (n 8).

22. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Human Rights Council - Universal Periodic Review’ https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/069/27/PDF/G1606927. pdf?OpenElement (accessed 24 February 2018).

23. African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, 1986-2001’ http://www.achpr.org/states/mauritania/reports/1st-1986-2001/ (accessed 23 February 2018).

24. African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights ‘Concluding Observations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Initial Report of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania adopted at its 31st ordinary session held at Pretoria, South Africa, 2-16 May 2002’ http://www.achpr.org/files/sessions/31st/conc-obs/1st-1986-2001/achpr31_conc_staterep1_mau ritania_2002_eng.pdf (accessed 18 February 2018).

25. African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights ‘Mauritania: Tenth to fourteenth periodic report, 1986-2001’ http://www.achpr.org/states/mauritania/reports/10th-14th-2006-2014/ (accessed 23 February 2018).

26. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Third to fifth periodic reports’ (n 19) 8.

27. As above.

28. Mauritania’s Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2012 https://www.constitute project.org/constitution/Mauritania_2012.pdf (accessed 27 February 2018) (translated version).

29. The Preamble and art 1 of Constitution of Mauritania (n 28).

30. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Third to fifth periodic reports’ (n 19).

31. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

32. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CEDAW/C/MRT/1’ (n 11).

33. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRC/C/8/Add.42’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f8%2fAdd.42&Lang=en (accessed 1 March 2018).

34. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Eighth to fourteenth periodic reports, CERD/C/MRT/8-14’ (n 16).

35. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Combined second and third periodic reports, CEDAW/C/MRT/2-3’ (n 13).

36. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRC/C/8/Add.42’ (n 32).

37. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report and the second, third, fourth and fifth periodic reports, CERD/C/330/Add.1’ (n 15).

38. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRC/C/8/Add.42’ (n 32). Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Addendum of follow-up report to the Concluding Observations on the combined second and third periodic reports’ (n 14).

39. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Addendum of follow-up report to the Concluding Observations on the combined second and third periodic reports’ (n 14).

40. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRC/C/8/Add.42’ (n 32).

41. As above.

42. As above.

43. As above.

44. As above.

45. As above.

46. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Third to fifth periodic reports, CRC/C/MRT/3-5’ (n 19).

47. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Human Rights Council - Mauritania’s National Report, A/HRC/WG.6/17/MUS/1’ http://www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rwmain?page=search&docid=52679d304&skip=0&query=legislation&coi=MRT&querysi=disability&searchin=fulltext&sort=relevance (accessed 2 March 2018).

48. As above.

49. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRC/C/8/Add.42’ (n 32).

50. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

51. As above.

52. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labour ‘Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2014: Mauritania’ https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2014humanrightsreport/index.htm# wrapper (accessed 2 March 2018).

53. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

54. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, E/C.12/MRT/1’ (n 17).

55. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report and the second, third, fourth and fifth periodic reports, CERD/C/421/Add.1’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD%2fC%2f421%2fAdd.1&Lang=en (accessed 2 March 2018).

56. As above.

57. As above.

58. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, E/C.12/MRT/1’ (n 17).

59. As above.

60. As above.

61. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, E/C.12/MRT/1’ (n 17).

62. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ‘UNHCR Operational Update - Mauritania’ https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/system/files/documents/files/unhcrmauritania-operatio nalupdate-december20151.pdf (accessed 2 March 2018).

63. As above.

64. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

65. As above.

66. As above.

67. As above.

68. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

69. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Third to fifth periodic reports, CRC/C/MRT/3-5’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?sym bolno=CRC%2fC%2fMRT%2f3-5&Lang=en (accessed 24 February 2018).

70. As above.

71. As above.

72. As above.

73. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

74. As above.

75. As above.

76. Conseil National Multisectoriel charge de la promotion des personnes handicapées ‘Plan quinquennal pour la promotion des personnes handicapées 2016/202O’ (translated version).

77. As above.

78. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRC/C/8/Add.42’ (n 32).

79. As above.

80. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Concluding Observations on the initial report at its 723rd and 724th meetings, CRC/C/15/Add.159’http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.159&Lang=en (accessed 3 March 2018).

81. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

82. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Third to fifth periodic reports, CRC/C/MRT/3-5’ (n 19).

83. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Combined second and third periodic reports, CEDAW/C/MRT/2-3’ https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G13/413/87/PDF/G1341387.pdf?OpenElement (accessed 22 February 2018).

84. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

85. As above.

86. Conseil National Multisectoriel charge de la promotion des personnes handicapées ‘Plan quinquennal pour la promotion des personnes handicapées 2016/202O’ (n 79).

87. As above.

88. As above.

89. As above.

90. As above.

91. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRC/C/8/Add.42’ (n 32).

92. As above, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRC/C/8/Add.42’ (n 32).

93. Same as above.

94. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

95. As above.

96. Conseil National Multisectoriel charge de la promotion des personnes handicapées ‘Plan quinquennal pour la promotion des personnes handicapées 2016/202O’ (n 79).

97. As above.

98. As above.

99. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

100. As above.

101. Conseil National Multisectoriel charge de la promotion des personnes handicapées ‘Plan quinquennal pour la promotion des personnes handicapées 2016/202O’ (n 79) ; Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

102. As above.

103. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

104. As above.

105. Conseil National Multisectoriel charge de la promotion des personnes handicapées ‘Plan quinquennal pour la promotion des personnes handicapées 2016/2020’ (n 79).

106. As above.

107. As above.

108. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CRPD/C/MRT/1’ (n 4).

109. As above.

110. As above.

111. As above.

112. Conseil National Multisectoriel charge de la promotion des personnes handicapées ‘Plan quinquennal pour la promotion des personnes handicapées 2016/202O’ (n 79).

113. As above.

114. As above.

115. As above.

116. As above.

117. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Combined second and third periodic reports, CEDAW/C/MRT/2-3’ https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G13/413/87/PDF/G1341387.pdf?OpenElement (accessed 22 February 2018).

118. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Mauritania: Initial report, CMW/C/MRT/1’ https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/271/03/PDF/G1527103.pdf?OpenElement (accessed 22 February 2018).

119. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights ‘List of issues prior to the submission of the initial report of Mauritania, CMW/C/MRT/QPR/1’ http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CMW%2fC%2fMRT%2fQPR%2f1&Lang=en (accessed 4 march 2018).


  • Youssouf Ali Mdahoma
  • Etudiant à l’ Institut Universitaire de Technologie de l’Université de Comores

  • YA Mdahoma ‘Country report: Comores’ (2018) 6 African Disability Rights Yearbook 161-183
    http://doi.org/10.29053/2413-7138/2018/v6a8
  • Download article in PDF

Summary

According to a household survey, the Comorian population is 805 153 and persons with disabilities are 21 430 (3,7 per cent) of the population. The most prevalent forms of disabilities include intellectual disabilities, motor disabilities and hearing disabilities. Comoros has signed and ratified both the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol. The Constitution of Comoros does not have provisions that directly address disability. However, the right of persons with disabilities to equality is implied in the constitutional right to equality which is guaranteed to everyone. Several pieces of legislation directly address disability. The key ones are: Law n° 14-037 of 22 December 2014 on the protection and promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities; Law n° 95-013 of 24 June 1995 on the protection of persons with disabilities; and the Law of 2006 which protects every person who has a disability or is susceptible to disability. Courts have yet to consider disability rights. Comoros has several policies that directly address disability, including its national strategy on the protection of children with disabilities. Other than ordinary courts or tribunals, there is no official body that specifically addresses the violation of the rights of people with disabilities. Comoros has a National Human Rights Commission and a Human Rights Federation which promote the realisation of disability rights. There are several disabled peoples’ organisations and civil society organisations that represent and advocate for the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities. At government level, the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Health, Solidarity, Social Welfare and Gender are focal ministries for promoting the rights of persons with disabilities. In addition, the Ministry of Employment and Work promotes disability rights in sport and recreation. Persons with disabilities experience exclusion and marginalisation across sectors, including access to health care, public buildings, public transport, education, vocational training, and employment. Comoros needs to accelerate and strengthen the implementation of disability rights.

1.1 Quelle est la population totale de l’Union des Comores?

Selon le dernier Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat de 2003 (projection 2016), la population comorienne est évaluée à 805 153 habitants.1

1.2 Méthodologie employée en vue d’obtenir des données statistiques sur la prévalence du handicap en Union des Comores. Quels sont les critères utilisés pour déterminer qui fait partie de la couche des personnes vivant avec handicap en Union des Comores?

Selon l’article 1562 du chapitre 4 -la protection des personnes vivant avec handicap et des personnes âgées.

« Est considérée comme personne vivant avec handicap toute personne atteinte d’une infirmité physique, sensorielle ou mentale permanente, isolément ou en association. »

L’assemblée comorienne a adopté une loi sur la promotion et la protection des droits des personnes handicapées, le 22 décembre 2014, qui définit également le handicap dans son article premier: « par personne handicapée, on entend toutes les personnes qui présentent des incapacités physiques, mentales, intellectuelles, ou sensorielles durables dont l’interaction avec diverses barrières peut porter atteintes à leur pleine et effective participation à la société sur la base de l’égalité. »

La technique de collecte de l’information sur les personnes vivant avec handicap lors du recensement Général de la Population et de l’habitat (RGPH2003) en septembre 2003 a consisté à poser systématiquement les questions suivantes à toutes personnes recensées: [NOM] est-il/elle handicapé (e)? Et P13 - quel(s) handicap(s) et leurs causes respectives?

1.3 Quel est le nombre total et le pourcentage des personnes vivant avec handicap en Union des Comores?

Le Recensement Général de la Population et de l’habitat de 2003 a permis de dénombrer 21430 personnes vivant avec un handicap sur une population totale de 575.660 habitants aux Comores soit 3,7% de l’effectif total de la population résidente.

1.4 Quel est le nombre total et le pourcentage des femmes vivant avec handicap aux Comores?

Selon les résultats de l’échantillon du Recensement Général de la population et de l’Habitat (RGPH2003) réalisé en septembre 2003, elle est presque également répartie entre les deux sexes: 10778 hommes (50,3%) et 10653 femmes (49,7%). La proportion de la population des personnes vivant avec handicap est concentrée en milieu rural où vivent 14773 personnes soit 68,9% contre 6657 personnes soit 31,1% en milieu urbain.

Tableau: Répartition en % de la population handicapée selon le milieu de résidence et le sexe en 2003 aux Comores.

 

Milieu de résidence

Total

Sexe

 

Hommes

Femmes

Effectif

%

Effectif

%

Effectif

%

Urbain

Rural

6 657

14 773

31 ,1

68,9

3 110

7 667

28,9

71,1

3 547

7 105

33,3

66,7

Total

21 430

100

10 778

100

10 653

100

1.5 Quel est le nombre total et le pourcentage des enfants vivant avec handicap aux Comores?

Selon le recensement de 2003, 6,9% des handicapés recensés ont moins de 6 ans et 12,4% des handicapés recensés sont ceux âgés de 6-14 ans.

1.6 Quelles sont les formes de handicaps les plus répandues aux Comores?

Il ressort du 3e recensement général de la population et de l’habitant aux Comores, d’après le contenu du questionnaire du RGPH3 en 2003, que les formes de handicaps les plus répandues sont respectivement le handicap mental (39,9% des cas de handicap), suivi du handicap membres inférieurs (17,7%), handicap sourd(e) (8,7%). Il faudrait souligner que les enquêteurs ont évalué les autres handicaps à 43,7%, sans lister ces autres formes. La prévalence moyenne est de 0,6%. Handicap International fait remarquer cependant que cette liste n’est pas exhaustive en raison de nombreux freins culturels ou bien par pudeur, par honte ou ignorance.

 

2.1 Quel est le statut de la Convention des Nations Unies relative aux Droits des Personnes Handicapées (CDPH) aux Comores? Les Comores ont-elles signé et ratifié la CDPH? Fournir le(s) date(s). Comores ont-elles signé et ratifié le Protocole facultatif? Fournir le(s) date(s).

L’Union des Comores a signé la loi sur la Convention des Nations Unies relative aux Droits des Personnes Handicapées (CDPH) le 26 septembre 2007, l’a adoptée au parlement comorien le 13 décembre 2011 puis ratifiée le 16 juin 2016 par le gouvernement comorien. Le protocole facultatif (appelé additionnel pour le cas des Comores) est adopté à l’assemblée nationale le 28 mai 2015.

2.2 Si l’Union des Comores a signé et ratifié la CDPH, quel est/était le délai de soumission de son rapport? Quelle branche du gouvernement est responsable de la soumission du rapport? L’Union des Comores a-t-elle soumis son rapport? Sinon quelles sont les raisons du retard telles qu’avancées par la branche gouvernementale en charge?

Comme la ratification est très récente le 16 juin 2016, n’y pas eu un véritable suivi notamment sur le traitement et la soumission du rapport. En outre, la politique relative au handicap n’est pas une priorité dans le programme du pays. Malgré les consultations des structures (branches) telles que Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Ministère de Fonction publique spécialement le bureau de la Délégation des Droits de l’Homme, il était impossible d’avoir les raisons de la non soumission du rapport.

2.3 Si l’Union des Comores a soumis le rapport au 2.2 et si le comité en charge des droits des personnes handicapées avait examiné le rapport, veuillez indiquer si le comité avait émis des observations finales et des recommandations au sujet du rapport de l’Union des Comores. Y’avait-il des effets internes découlant du processus de rapport lié aux questions handicapées de l’Union des Comores?

L’Union des Comores n’a pas encore soumis son rapport.

2.4 En établissant un rapport sous divers autres instruments des Nations Unies, la Charte Africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples ou la Charte Africaine relative aux Droits et au bien-être de l’Enfant, l’Union des Comores a-t-elle également fait mention spécifique du droit des personnes handicapées dans ses rapports les plus récents? Si oui, les observations finales adoptées par les organes statutaires ont-elles fait mention du handicap? Si pertinentes, ces observations ont-elles été suivies d’effet? Etait-il fait mention des droits des handicapés dans le rapport de la Revue Périodique Universelle (RPU) des Nations Unies de l’Union des Comores? Si oui, quels étaient les effets de ces observations ou recommandations?

En effet, l’Union des Comores a fait mention du droit des personnes vivant avec handicap dans les rapports soumis aux organes de traités des Nations unies et de l’Union Africaine.

  • Comité de droits civils et politiques

Le Gouvernement intègre dans son action les politiques publiques en faveur des personnes vivant avec handicap. La Convention des Nations Unies relative aux droits des personnes vivant avec handicap et son Protocole facultatif sont en cours de ratification. Une réflexion est en cours pour adapter certaines infrastructures au handicap. Un fond a été créé pour venir en aide aux personnes vivant avec handicap. Il n’y a pas de discrimination à l’égard des personnes vivant avec handicap.

Les Maldives ont félicité les Comores d’avoir adhéré au Statut de Rome de la Cour pénale internationale et d’avoir ratifié la Convention relative aux droits des personnes vivant avec handicap. Elles ont reconnu les difficultés rencontrées pour résoudre certaines questions relatives aux droits de l’homme et noté qu’il importait de renforcer le système judiciaire et la formation de la police afin que les groupes vulnérables puissent mieux exercer leurs droits fondamentaux.

La Chine a félicité les Comores d’avoir renforcé les droits des femmes, des enfants et des personnes handicapées et de s’être engagées à améliorer l’exercice des droits relatifs à la santé et à l’éducation ainsi que des autres droits sociaux et culturels.

L’Éthiopie a félicité les Comores de l’adoption d’une politique nationale des droits de l’homme, qui conforterait les efforts déployés pour promouvoir et protéger ces droits. Elle a noté avec satisfaction la ratification de la Convention relative aux droits des personnes vivant avec handicap.

  • Comité des droits de l’enfant

La CNDHL recommande de mettre en œuvre le Plan Intermédiaire de l’Education (PIE), en veillant à favoriser l’accès des enfants vivants avec handicap à l’éducation. Il a recommandé aux Comores d’accroître leurs efforts pour garantir la mise en œuvre du principe de non-discrimination et de remédier à la discrimination dont peuvent continuer d’être victimes tous les groupes vulnérables.

  • Projet de Rapport du groupe de travail sur l’examen périodique universel

Le Gouvernement comorien a précisé que la discrimination à l’encontre des personnes souffrant d’un handicap n’était pas un problème aux Comores, car la tradition islamique était très tolérante à ce sujet. Le fait que le Président de l’île de Ngazidja fût un albinos a ainsi été cité en exemple.

  • Comité contre la torture

Le Comité des droits de l’enfant s’est inquiété de ce que le châtiment corporel au sein de la famille soit une pratique socialement et juridiquement acceptée, en particulier pour les garçons. Le recours aux châtiments corporels dans les écoles coraniques a aussi été condamné. Le Comité a recommandé aux Comores de prendre des mesures efficaces pour prévenir et combattre les sévices et les mauvais traitements infligés aux enfants au sein de la famille, à l’école et dans d’autres institutions, ainsi qu’au sein de la société dans son ensemble. De plus, des programmes éducatifs devraient être mis en place pour lutter contre l’attitude traditionnelle de la société à ce sujet. Le Comité a recommandé en particulier à l’État parti d’interdire expressément, dans le cadre de sa législation, le recours aux châtiments corporels dans la famille et à l’école. Présentement aux Comores, dans les établissements coraniques rénovés et dans les établissements scolaires, une initiative est prise de ne plus punir un enfant.

2.5 Y’avait-il un quelconque effet interne sur le système légal de l’Union des Comores après la ratification de l’instrument international ou régional au 2.4 ci-dessus?

Il n’a pas encore été constaté ou observé des effets produits après la ratification de la CDPH, le 16 juin 2016. Le pays aurait dû commencer par la modification de la Constitution ; cela n’a pas encore été fait.

2.6 Les traités internationaux ratifiés deviennent-ils automatiquement loi nationale sous votre système légal? Si oui y a-t-il des cas où les cours et tribunaux appliquent directement les dispositions du traité international?

Les traités de paix, les traités de commerce, les traités ou accords relatifs à l’organisation internationale, ceux qui engagent les finances de l’Union, ceux qui modifient les dispositions de nature législative, ceux qui sont relatifs à l’état des personnes, ceux qui comportent sur des cessions, échanges ou adjonction de territoire, ne peuvent être ratifiés ou approuvés qu’en vertu d’une loi. Ils ne prennent effet qu’après avoir été ratifiés ou approuvés. Si la Cour Constitutionnelle, saisie par le Président de l’Union, par le Président de l’Assemblée de l’Union ou par les Chefs des Exécutifs insulaires, a déclaré qu’un engagement international comporte une clause contraire à la Constitution, l’autorisation de la ratifier ou de l’approuver ne peut intervenir qu’après la révision de la Constitution.

Les traités ou accords régulièrement ratifiés ou approuvés ont dès leur publication une autorité supérieure à celle des lois de l’Union et des îles, sous réserve, pour chaque accord ou traitée, de son application par l’autre partie.3

Autrement dit, l’Union des Comores souscrit au dualisme. C’est à dire que la ratification d’un traité nécessite sa domestication pour avoir force de loi. Et, c’est après cette domestication que les cours et tribunaux peuvent l’appliquer.

2.7 En référence au 2.4 ci-dessus, la Convention des Nations Unies relative aux Droits des Personnes Handicapées CDPH ou tout autre instrument international ratifié, en tout ou en partie, a-t-il été incorporé textuellement dans la législation nationale? Fournir les détails.

Non. Comme précédemment, j’ai demandé des renseignements auprès des structures (branches) suivantes mais en vain ; Ministère des Affaires Etrangère, Ministère de Fonction Publique, spécialement le bureau de la Délégation des Droits de l’Homme.

3.1 La constitution de l’Union des Comores contient-elle des dispositions concernant directement le handicap? Si oui énumérez les dispositions et expliquez comment chacune d’elles traite du handicap.

La constitution de l’Union des Comores ne contient aucune disposition concernant directement le handicap. Après lecture de la constitution, le terme handicap ne figure pas ouvertement dans les textes constitutionnels.

3.2 La constitution de l’Union des Comores contient-elle des dispositions concernant indirectement le handicap? Si oui énumérez les dispositions et expliquez comment chacune d’elles traite indirectement du handicap.

Oui. Son préambule prescrit le droit à l’égalité de tous, incluant des personnes vivant avec handicap.

Le droit à l’emploi éducation etc ... pour tous sont aussi garantis par le préambule.

4.1 L’Union des Comores a-t-elle une législation concernant directement le handicap? Si oui énumérez la législation et expliquez comment la législation aborde le handicap.

Il existe la loi 14-037 du 22 décembre 2014 relative à la promotion et à la protection des personnes vivant avec handicap, votée par l’Assemblée de l’Union et ratifié par le Décret N°15-059/PR du 02/05/2015.

  • Comores Code de la santé publique et de l’action sociale pour le bien-être de la population. Loi n°95-013 du 24 juin 1995. Chapitre 4 - La protection des handicapés et des personnes âgées.

L’article 159 de cette loi prévoit;

  • Les modalités des soins, de réadaptation et de réinsertion professionnelle des handicapés ainsi que les programmes d’action en faveur des personnes âgées sont fixés par voie réglementaire.

D’après le code du travail, la loi de 2006 protège toute personne handicapée ou susceptible d’être handicapée, disant que ce dernier a totalement le droit de travail. Sous condition disant s’il est apte à travailler sur une fonction donnée.

4.2 L’Union des Comores a-t-elle une législation concernant indirectement le handicap? Si oui énumérez la principale législation et expliquez comment elle réfère au handicap.
  • La Loi n°04-006 du 10 novembre 2004 relative au Statut général des fonctionnaires.

L’article 31 inclut parmi les conditions d’intégration dans la fonction Publique comorienne, la 3e condition qui est basée sur le handicap, disant: « (...) remplir les conditions d’aptitudes, physique et mentale, exigées pour l’exercice de la fonction; un handicap physique ne peut être pris en considération pour l’accès à la Fonction Publique si ce handicap n’affecte pas les capacités, intellectuelle, morale et mentale de l’intéressé (...) »

Cette loi demeure en partie discriminatoire pour les personnes en situation de handicap. Ici on exige des capacités correspondantes à la fonction attribuée. Si ces aptitudes physiques n’atteignent pas ces exigences, elle ne peut pas être intégrée à la fonction publique. Mais il n’y a pas des dispositions stipulant que la fonction publique peut adapter certaines fonctions pour faciliter l’accès de cette partie de citoyens.

  • Code de la santé publique et de l’action sociale pour le bien-être de la population

Le chapitre 4 consacré à La protection des handicapés et des personnes âgées, possédant l’article 156, montre qui est considéré handicapé: « Est considérée comme personne handicapée toute personne atteinte d’une infirmité physique, sensorielle ou mentale permanente, isolément ou en association ».

L’article 158 montre la protection des personnes handicapées dans le domaine de la santé publique et de services sociaux comme étant un droit et une obligation de tout citoyen et de la société dans son ensemble.

5.1 Les cours ou tribunaux de l’Union des Comores ont-ils jamais statué sur une question relative au handicap? Si oui énumérez le cas et fournir un résumé pour chacun des cas en indiquant quels étaient les faits ; la (les) décision(s), la démarche et l’impact (le cas échéant) que ces cas avaient entrainés.

Non.

6.1 L’Union des Comores a-t-elle des politiques ou programmes qui englobent directement le handicap? Si oui énumérez la politique et expliquez comment cette politique aborde le handicap.
  • La politique nationale de solidarité et son plan d’action,
  • La politique nationale de protection sociale et son plan d’action,
  • La stratégie nationale de protection des enfants vulnérables et la politique nationale de protection des enfants ainsi que son plan d’action englobent des programmes touchant directement ces personnes vivant avec handicap.
6.2 L’Union des Comores a-t-elle des politiques ou programmes qui englobent indirectement le handicap? Si oui énumérez chaque politique et décrivez comment elle aborde indirectement le handicap.

La stratégie nationale pour l’éducation de base des Enfants Vivant avec Handicap (EVH) 2017-2026 a pour objectif de permettre à tous les enfants handicapés, la libre jouissance de leurs droits fondamentaux en matière d’éducation. C’est dans ce cadre que lors du Forum mondial de l’éducation en 2015, des ministres de l’éducation, ont adopté la Déclaration d’Incheon. Ils s’engagent à réaliser un agenda de l’éducation unique, actualisé, ambitieux et qui ne laisse personne pour compte afin d’atteindre l’Objectif de Développement Durable (ODD 4) qui vise à « assurer à tous une éducation équitable, inclusive et de qualité et des possibilités d’apprentissage tout au long de la vie ».

En Union des Comores, les données actuelles démontrent que le nombre d’élèves du préélémentaire jusqu’au collège est de 179 099 dont 967, soit 0,5% sont des enfants en situation de handicap.

Selon le Plan Intérimaire de l’Education (PIE) 2013-2015 (2013), parmi les EVH identifiés dans l’enseignement de base, certains sont malvoyants et d’autres sont malentendants (« sourd, muet, sourd-muet »).

7.1 En dehors des cours ou tribunaux ordinaires, l’Union des Comores a-t-elle un organisme officiel qui s’intéresse spécifiquement de la violation des droits des personnes vivant avec handicap? Si oui décrire l’organe, ses fonctions et ses pouvoirs.

En dehors des juridictions ordinaires, il n’existe pas à ce jour en Union des Comores d’organisme officiel s’intéressant spécifiquement aux violations de personnes vivant avec handicap.

7.2 En dehors des cours ou tribunaux ordinaires, l’Union des Comores a-t-elle un organisme officiel qui, bien que n’étant pas spécifiquement en charge de la violation des droits des personnes vivant avec handicap s’y attèle tout de même? Si oui décrire l’organe, ses fonctions et ses pouvoirs.

La Commission Nationale des Droits de L’Homme et des Libertés (CNDHL) est une institution nationale des Droits de l’Homme mise en place le 2 octobre 2012 en vertu de la Loi N°11-028/AU du 23 décembre 2011, promulguée par décret N°12-042/PR du 18 février 2012. Elle est autonome, neutre et dotée de la personnalité juridique. Elle jouit de l’autonomie administrative, technique et financière et de l’indépendance d’action.

La FCDH (Fédération Comorienne des Droits de l’Homme), qui est une ONG nationale avec une branche dans chaque île, mène des actions de promotion et de protection des personnes vulnérables dont les personnes vivant avec handicap.

Les activités principales de la CNDHL consistent à:
  • Promouvoir les droits humains par l’éducation, la formation et la sensibilisation.
  • Protéger les droits de l’homme en apportant assistance, conseil et orientation aux victimes de violation des droits de l’homme et de libertés fondamentales d’une part et d’autre part, en influant sur la ratification des instruments juridiques internationaux; participer à l’élaboration des lois et des projets/programmes ayant trait aux droits humains, en donnant son avis sur tout projet de texte ayant une incidence avec les Droits de l’Homme, en effectuant des médiations, en étant en justice et enfin en apportant un appui/conseil au Gouvernement sur toutes les questions relatives au Droit International des Droits de l’Homme

Défendre les droits humains par la dénonciation, l’alerte et la publication de rapports.

8.1 L’Union Des Comores est-elle dotée d’une Commission de Droits de l’Homme ou d’un Ombudsman ou d’un Protecteur du Citoyen? Si oui ses missions incluent-elles la promotion et la protection des droits des personnes vivant avec handicap? Si votre réponse est oui, indiquez également si la Commission de Droits de l’Homme ou l’Ombudsman ou le Protecteur du Citoyen de l’Union Des Comores n’a jamais abordé des questions relatives aux droits des personnes vivant avec handicap.

La Commission Nationale des Droits de L’Homme et des Libertés (CNDHL) est une institution nationale des Droits de l’Homme mise en place le 2octobre 2012 en vertu de la Loi N°11-028/AU du 23 décembre 2011, promulguée par décret N°12-042/PR du 18 février 2012. Elle est autonome, neutre et dotée de la personnalité juridique. Elle jouit de l’autonomie administrative, technique et financière et de l’indépendance d’action.

La CNDHL est dotée d’un mandat de promotion et de protection des droits de l’homme en vertu de la Loi N°11-028/AU du 23 décembre 2011instituant la CNDHL. La CNDH est également en charge du suivi de la mise en œuvre des instruments de Droits de l’Homme ratifiés par l’Union Des Comores. Le CNDHL travaille avec le Ministère des affaires islamiques pour la dotation d’une pension trimestrielle équivalent à 10.000 FC (équivalant 28$) par personne. Un recensement a été réalisé par la Direction Générale des Affaires Islamiques en 2012, afin de réactualiser la liste des personnes handicapées devant bénéficier cette subvention.

A ce jour, la CNDHL n’a pas reçu de plaintes concernant de violation de droits de personnes handicapées.

9.1 Avez-vous en Union des Comores des organisations qui représentent et défendent les droits et le bien-être des personnes vivant avec handicap? Si oui énumérez chaque organisation et décrivez ses activités.
  • L’Association Shiwé.

Elle a été créée le 5 novembre 1991 et son siège social est situé dans la capitale du pays, à Moroni. SHIWE est une association à but non lucratif. Parmi ses activités:

  • Regrouper les personnes vivant avec handicap autour de projets communs et d’activités de loisirs et de développement de leurs conditions de vie.
  • Rendre les personnes vivant avec handicap le plus autonomes possibles.
  • Sensibiliser les populations et les institutions sur les problèmes et la vie des personnes vivants avec handicap.
  • Participer aux jeux paralympiques de l’océan indien.

Les personnes vivant avec handicap comoriennes sont sorties vainqueurs en avril 1992 d’une compétition qui a eu lieu sur l’île de la Réunion et rassemblant des Réunionnais, des Français de Mayotte et de la Guadeloupe, des Mauriciens, et des Comoriens. Ces derniers ont remporté 15 médailles d’or, 8 médailles d’argent, 2 médailles de bronze et 5 coupes.

De juin 1992 à juin 1993 Shiwe a monté une équipe de football composée de personne vivant avec handicap. Cette équipe a effectué des tournées sur la Grande Comore pour sensibiliser les populations et dans l’objectif de rassembler les personnes vivant avec handicap.

Chaque année, de 1992 à 1995, l’association a participé aux défilés et aux manifestations des journées de commémoration de l’indépendance du 6 juillet.

En mai 1993, Shiwe a participé à l’organisation de la journée de la francophonie.

En Juin 1993, l’association a inauguré son programme de réinsertion socioprofessionnelle en envoyant en formation des handicapés: 4 en ateliers de menuiserie, 2 en atelier de soudure, 1 à l’école ménagère, 1 en secrétariat, 1 en cordonnerie.

Participation de Shiwe à un séminaire à Kampala, en Uganda, ayant pour thème « Le leadership et le développement des personnes handicapées », qui s’est déroulé du 28 mars au 3 avril 1993.

En août 1994, 2 handicapés ont participés aux jeux de la francophonie à Paris.

Shiwe a envoyé en novembre 1994 une personne vivant avec handicap à Madagascar pour y suivre une formation en électro-froid.

De 1993 à 1995, trois personnes vivant avec handicap ont bénéficié d’une formation en artisanat, dans le cadre d’un projet artisanal proposé par Handicap International et financé par le Centre Canadien d’Etude et de Coopération Internationale (C.E.C.1.).

L’association Shiwe a pris en charge, en 1998, les soins de 32 personnes indigentes vivant avec handicap. Elle a mis en place, avec le soutien du Secrétariat d’Etat à la Solidarité Nationale, un projet de microfinance au profit de personnes handicapées. Au courant du mois de juin 1996, l’association reçoit une dotation en produits alimentaires provenant du Programme Alimentaire Mondial (P.A.M.) dont ont bénéficié 1838 handicapés. En 1998 l’association participe aux jeux des îles de l’océan indien à la Réunion. Shiwe obtient en 1998 qu’une personne vivant avec handicap soit recrutée à la fonction publique pour occuper au Commissariat des affaires sociales le poste de représentant et chargé d’affaires des personnes handicapées.4

  • La FAHAC (Fédération des Associations des personnes Handicapées des Comores).

Elle est créée en 2004 et reconstituée en octobre 2016 en assemblée générale élective. Elle a pour mission principale de « regrouper l’ensemble des associations et personnes handicapées comoriennes pour la promotion et la protection de leurs droits, reconnus dans la CDPH et les textes de lois nationaux ».

Extraits du statut: « La FAHAC affirme son statut d’association familiale, c’est-à-dire qui rassemble des personnes handicapées, leurs parents et amis et des bénévoles, pour:

  • Créer et gérer des établissements et services adaptés qui permettent aux personnes handicapées d’accéder au mieux, dans la mesure de leurs capacités, à une vie citoyenne;
  • Défendre les droits de ces personnes et leur permettre de disposer d’une solution d’accueil et d’accompagnement et qu’elles soient intégrées dans la société;
  • Défendre les droits des familles pour que la survenue du handicap ne soit pas synonyme d’exclusion sociale.

La Fédération a pour buts de:

  • Accompagner la personne handicapée tout au long de son parcours de vie;
  • Agir en faveur de l’intégration, de la participation et de la citoyenneté des personnes handicapées;
  • Accueillir, informer et accompagner les familles des personnes handicapées;
  • Développer l’action associative en faveur de la cause des personnes handicapées;
  • Promouvoir, épanouir la personne handicapée et de l’insérer dans la vie sociale.

La Fédération est apolitique et non confessionnelle. CONTACT: fahac2016gmail. com

  • Le Bureau Horizon Handicap Comores (HHC, voir la page Facebook)

L’idée d’installer ce Bureau, portant le pseudonyme « Horizon Handicap Comores-SARL », vient à la suite d’un constat fait sur le terrain comorien, notamment l’inexistence sur le territoire national de dispositif ou structure qui a pour mission de trouver des réponses sociales, paramédicales, durables, aux besoins spécifiques des personnes en situation de handicap.

Le Bureau « Horizon Handicap Comores » promeut, à cet effet, de proposer des solutions à court, moyens et long terme, au bénéfice de cette partie de la population, en travaillant de concert avec les autorités du pays, les organismes ou partenaires au développement, les organisations de la société civile nationales et internationales ainsi que les parents des personnes handicapées comoriennes.

Le gérant est Ismaël Saïd, diplômé d’un Master2 sur les situations de handicap et la participation sociales, à l’EHESP, en France.

  • AHAM (Association des Handicapés de Mohéli-Comores)

Elle est affiliée à la fédération FAHAC. Située dans la petite ile de l’archipel des Comores. Elle est l’unique association regroupant l’ensemble des personnes handicapées de Mohéli.

Parmi ses activités:

  • Regrouper les personnes handicapées dans un même cadre et trouver des réponses appropriées à leurs besoins respectifs;
  • Concevoir et gérer des projets inclusifs;

Projets en perspectives:

L’AHAM gère un projet qui bien qu’étant en souffrance pourrait promettre une réussite dans leurs vies au quotidien. Il s’agit d’actions portant sur: la « création des activités génératrices des revenus: restauration, coutures, cordonneries, centre informatique, formations) ».

  • L’association MAYESHA de l’ile d’ANJOUAN

Elle est affiliée à la fédération également.

Elle a les mêmes objectifs et poursuit presque les mêmes buts et activités que les autres associations des autres iles.

9.2 Dans votre région, les OPH sont-elles organisées ou coordonnées au niveau national et/ou régional?

Oui, Il existe une coordination nationale des associations

9.3 Si l’Union des Comores a ratifié la CDPH, comment a-t-elle assuré l’implication des Organisations des personnes vivant avec handicap dans le processus de mise en œuvre?

Les OPH sont parfois invités à des conférences et des séminaires organisés par le gouvernement afin de donner leurs points de vue lors. Elle travaille en collaboration avec l’association Réseaux Amani. Aucune action de mise en œuvre n’est encore concrétisée.

L’union des Comores, n’implique généralement pas les personnes handicapées comme acteurs mais plutôt comme des témoins. Ce qui ne favorise aucunement l’aspect « inclusion » devant promouvoir la participation active des personnes handicapées dans les programmes du pays.

9.4 Quels genres d’actions les OPH ont-elles prise elles-mêmes afin de s’assurer qu’elles soient pleinement intégrées dans le processus de mise en œuvre?

Le nouveau Président de la FAHAC, et en sa qualité de gérant du bureau HHC, a eu à s’entretenir avec quelques structures gouvernementales sur les questions portant sur le handicap. Au terme des discussions, il vient de proposer le plan d’action devant servir à la fois les associations et les instances agissant dans le domaine du handicap:

I. Proposition d’un chronogramme de quelques activités pour l’année 2018-20215

Période

Intitulé des activités

Chargé de l’exécution

Semestre 1

A1: appuyer la promulgation de la loi sur la promotion des droits et la protection sociale de la personne handicapée comorienne, du 22 décembre 2014

Commissariat national du genre et solidarité

A2: faire la promotion de cette loi à travers les médias et la société

La fédération des associations des personnes handicapées comoriennes

A3: sensibiliser les parents et tuteurs des personnes handicapées sur les droits et la prise en compte de leurs enfants victimes des maltraitances

La Direction de la solidarité et la FAHAC

Semestre 2

A4: accompagner la stratégie nationale de scolarisation des enfants en situation de handicap aux Comores.

Les services de protection de l’enfant de chaque ile et la FAHAC

A5: Recenser les personnes handicapées, identifier leurs typologies de handicap et besoins en termes de compensations

Le Bureau d’étude Horizon- Handicap-Comores

A6: proposer des études sur l’Education, l’accessibilité, l’emploi, la santé des personnes handicapées.

Le Bureau d’étude Horizon-Handicap-Comores

Semestre 3

A7: Proposer un projet sur l’Allocation Adulte Handicapé (AAH);

Le Bureau d’étude Horizon- Handicap-Comores

A8: Créer une mutuelle de santé au service des personnes handicapées comoriennes;

Commissariat national et HHC

A9: Concevoir des micros emplois adaptés et générateurs des revenus aux bénéfices des personnes handicapées.

Le Bureau d’étude Horizon -Handicap-Comores

Semestre 4

A10: Evaluation des actions réalisées (résultats, effets et impacts).

La FAHAC et le commissariat

9.5 Quels sont, le cas échéant les obstacles rencontrés par les OPH lors de leur engagement dans la mise en œuvre?

L’association Shiwé et « Fédération des Associations des Personnes Handicapées » et les adhérents sont en majorité des personnes vulnérables sans qualification professionnelle. Elles n’ont pas les capacités techniques pour monter un projet et mobiliser des fonds de la part des partenaires au développement. Il y a très peu de personnes handicapées diplômées.

Parmi les obstacles:

  • La méconnaissance des aspects sociaux du handicap. Le handicap étant perçu généralement comme une maladie dont les solutions se trouvent dans des établissements sanitaires. Cette perception est bien ancrée dans les esprits de beaucoup de comoriens.
  • Manque de professionnels dans le champ du handicap aux Comores. Les personnes en situation de handicap sont donc confrontées à tous ces problèmes, notamment pour faire comprendre à la société que le handicap vient de changer de paradigmes. Le handicap n’est plus uniquement un problème biomédical mais aussi un problème lié à l’organisation de l’environnement social, physique ... Cette dimension sociale de handicap n’est pas mise en avant.
  • Le manque de financeurs pour les projets sur le handicap;
  • Les manques d’ouvrages sur la question du handicap.
9.6 Y a-t-il des exemples pouvant servir de ‘modèles’ pour la participation des OPH?

Non.

9.7 Y a-t-il des résultats spécifiques concernant une mise en œuvre prospère et/ou une reconnaissance appropriée des droits des personnes handicapées résultant de l’implication des OPH dans le processus de mise en œuvre?

Non.

9.8 Votre recherche (pour ce projet) a-t-elle identifié des aspects qui nécessitent le développement de capacité et soutien pour les OPH afin d’assurer leur engagement dans la mise en œuvre de la Convention?

En premier lieu, la documentation aux Comores est un grand défi d’une manière générale, plus précisément si cela concerne les OPH. Durant les recherches sur ce projet, il n’y a aucun bureau gouvernemental qui ait pu donner plus d’une réponse à ce formulaire. De ce fait, la mise en place d’une plateforme de documentation pour les droits et initiatives des OPH est primordiale.

Le manque de siège social est un obstacle majeur. Même si l’association Shiwé (ce qui est également le cas de toutes les autres associations) possède un siège celui-ci est en dégradation.

Le renforcement des capacités est également un aspect qui a été identifié; la plupart personnes comoriennes vivant avec handicap n’ont pas eu accès à l’éducation occidentale.

Enfin, les OPH doivent mettre en place une campagne permanente dans l’objectif d’influencer les pouvoirs publics pour accomplir leurs projets.

Il serait souhaitable que les personnes vivant avec un handicap bénéficient de formation d’alphabétisation pour certains, mais aussi de l’apprentissage et de la formation professionnelle, particulièrement les jeunes vivant avec un handicap qui ont abandonné l’école ou sont non scolarisés.

9.9 Y a-t-il des recommandations provenant de votre recherche au sujet de comment les OPH pourraient plus largement responsabilisées dans les processus de mise en œuvre des instruments internationaux ou régionaux?

Les OPH devraient avoir des personnes en situation de handicap dans les syndicats afin de promouvoir et protéger leurs droits.

Les OPH doivent être représentés dans les organes en charge du suivi et de la mise en œuvre d’instruments de Droits de l’Homme ratifiés par l’Union de Comores notamment, le Comité de rédaction et de soumission de rapports aux organes de traités et la Commission Nationale des Droits de l’Homme.

Et pour finir, les OPH mériteraient une branche gouvernementale dédiée aux droits et à l’insertion de personnes handicapés à la vie active. Pour ce dernier point, il existe déjà des services qui devraient s’occuper de ses personnes mais qui ne sont pas opérationnels. Il faut créer les voies et moyens pour les opérationnaliser

Il faut aussi l’intégration d’un département handicap dans l’un des ministères de l’Union des Comores dont le responsable soit une personne vivant avec un handicap, qualifiée sur le champ social du handicap.

9.10 Y’a-t-il des instituts de recherche spécifiques dans votre région qui travaillent sur les droits des personnes handicapées et qui ont facilité l’implication des OPH dans le processus, y compris la recherche?

Le centre national de documentation et de recherche scientifique de l’Union des Comores (CNDRS) est en pleine rénovation; la réponse est donc non (temporellement). Toutefois, ce centre mène déjà des actions allant dans le sens du développement des programmes d’appui aux personnes vivant avec un handicap.

Ce centre a également conduit la définition, l’élaboration et la validation de la stratégie nationale de scolarisation des enfants vivant avec handicap. A nos jours aux Comores, il n’y a pas d’institut de recherche basé sur le travail des droits des personnes vivant avec un handicap.

Sur ce point, je propose de nous appuyer à intégrer à l’université des Comores un module portant sur le handicap et/ou un service référent handicap au sein des établissements universitaires des Comores

10.1 Avez-vous des branches gouvernementales spécifiquement chargées de promouvoir et protéger les droits et le bien-être des personnes vivant avec handicap? Si oui, décrivez les activités de cette (ces) branche(s).

Le Ministère de l’Education Nationale a mis en place un projet pour permettre aux enfants vivant avec handicap l’accès à l’éducation.

Le Ministère des affaires islamiques a initié, depuis plusieurs années, des mécanismes de remise de cash transfert aux personnes vivant avec un handicap à travers le trésor public.

Le Ministère de la santé, de la solidarité, de la protection sociale et de la promotion du genre dispose d’un service chargé de la promotion et de la protection des personnes vivant avec handicap et les vieillards. Ce service initie quelques projets en aide aux personnes vivant avec handicap, même si parfois, les donateurs ne répondent pas aux appels.

Le Ministère de l’Emploi et du Travail chargé du sport et des loisirs, est celui qui a initié le projet de loi sur la promotion et la protection des personnes vivant avec handicap. La fédération de personnes vivant avec handicap dirigée par Mr Chahalane, joue un rôle de plus en plus prépondérant dans l’insertion des personnes vivant avec handicap dans le sport en initiant des compétitions des sports divers pour les personnes vivant avec handicap. Cependant, il n’y a pas une branche gouvernementale spécifiquement chargée de promouvoir et protéger les droits et le bien-être des personnes vivant avec handicap. Il serait souhaitable que toutes ces institutions se coordonnent pour un meilleur rendement pour les bénéficiaires.

11.1 Quels sont les défis contemporains des personnes vivant avec handicap en Union des Comores? (exemple: Certaines régions d’Afrique pratiquent des tueries rituelles de certaines catégories de personnes vivant avec handicap telles que les personnes atteintes d’albinisme. A cet effet la Tanzanie est aux avant-postes.) Nous devons remettre en cause les pratiques coutumières qui discriminent, blessent et tuent les personnes vivant avec handicap.

L’Union des Comores ne pratique pas d’acte causant préjudices aux personnes handicapées. Sauf en cas de manque de thérapies. En effet, l’accès aux soins des personnes ayant un handicap mental constitue un défi majeur compte tenu du manque de personnel qualifié en psychiatrie. Pour une population estimée à environ un million de personnes, il y a 2 médecins psychiatre. Cela est devenu un défi majeur, mais à ce jour des voix s’élèvent pour trouver des solutions dans ce domaine. Les familles de ces personnes souffrant de déficience mentale seraient encourager à se tourner vers les thérapies traditionnelles. Il est également fréquent de voir des personnes souffrant de troubles psychiques, vivant reclus et enchainées dans leur chambre.

La plupart des familles considèrent leurs enfants handicapés comme des personnes incapables de poursuivre des études scolaires. Cependant, ces familles-là n’envoient pas n’ont plus leurs enfants handicapés à l’hôpital. Ce problème de discrimination ne se situe pas seulement dans la cellule familiale proche, mais aussi chez une majorité d’individus qui considèrent la personne handicapée comme « folle », voir ne respectent pas ses droits en tant qu’humain.

Il y a aussi un manque des médecins spécialisés dans la rééducation et la réadaptation fonctionnelle. Les personnes handicapées vivent en grande partie dans la mendicité. Elles descendent dans les rues les jours de vendredis pour mendier dans les boutiques et auprès des passants. Ceci démontre l’atteinte à la dignité de la personne handicapée dans l’Union des Comores.

11.2 Comment l’Union des Comores répond-elle aux besoins des personnes handicapées au regard des domaines ci-dessous énumérés?
  • L’accès aux bâtiments publics

Les bâtiments publics disposant de rampes d’accès pour les fauteuils roulants sont quasi inexistant aux Comores. Toutefois, toutes les écoles publiques construites ces deux dernières années disposent des rampes d’accès aux personnes vivant avec un handicap.

  • L’accès au transport public

En Union des Comores, le système de transport public est inexistant. Le système de transport en commun en vigueur se limite aux bus et minibus appartenant à des particuliers travaillant à leur propre compte. Ces derniers choisissent à leur guise leur itinéraire en fonction de sa rentabilité. Les chauffeurs de bus et minibus circulant dans la capitale ne pratiquent aucune discrimination de transport pour les personnes handicapées. Cependant, ils ne sont pas équipés de rampe d’accès pour les fauteuils roulants. Ils font de leur mieux pour aider ces personnes handicapées.

  • L’accès à l’éducation

Les données actuelles démontrent que le nombre d’élèves du préélémentaire jusqu’au collège est de 179 099 dont 967 - soit 0,5% - sont des enfants en situation de handicap. Selon le Plan Intérimaire de l’Education (PIE) 2013-2015 (2013), parmi les Enfants vivant avec un handicap, identifiés dans l’enseignement de base, certains sont malvoyants et d’autres sont malentendants (« sourd, muet, sourd-muet »).

Au regard des données existantes, il convient de constater que l’Union des Comores accuse un grand retard dans le domaine de la scolarisation des enfants vivant avec handicap, et plusieurs raisons peuvent expliquer une telle défaillance.

Le PIE 2013-2015 et le Plan de Transition du Secteur de l’Education (PTSE) 2018-2020 précisent qu’au sein du système éducatif comorien, il n’existe pas de dispositifs spécifiques mis en place pour la prise en charge des enfants vivant avec handicap. De plus, beaucoup d’études révèlent qu’à l’école, les enfants vivant avec handicap ne reçoivent ni le soutien, ni l’aide dont ils ont besoin pour vaincre les obstacles qui les empêchent de participer pleinement à leurs apprentissages.

Les enseignants utilisent souvent des méthodes pédagogiques traditionnelles qui ne prennent pas en considération les besoins particuliers de certains enfants vivant avec handicap. On constate aussi le manque de matériels spécifiques aux enfants en situation de handicap et l’absence généralisée de supports et d’outils pédagogiques adaptés à l’apprentissage pour ces personnes. Cette situation entraîne non seulement un accroissement du taux de redoublements, mais aussi des taux importants d’abandons scolaires, ou de non-scolarisation. D’où la nécessité absolue de la mise en œuvre de la loi sur la protection et la promotion des personnes vivant avec handicap.

  • L’accès à la formation professionnelle

D’après le secrétaire de l’association Shiwé, Ali M’MADI, « l’Etat n’a mis aucune structure pour nous aider nous handicapés à l’accès à la formation professionnelle ».6 Il n’y a pas non plus de politique d’insertion professionnelle des personnes handicapées.

  • L’accès à l’emploi

Il n’existe pas de restriction sur l’emploi des personnes vivant avec handicap. Ceux qui arrivent à obtenir un diplôme sont recrutés au même titre que les autres personnes au moment où il y a un recrutement public.

  • L’accès à la fonction publique

Selon l’article 31 du Statut général des fonctionnaires,7 peut être intégrée dans la fonction Publique comorienne toute personne qui remplit les conditions suivantes:

a) Etre citoyen(ne) comorien(ne) à titre originaire ou naturalisé;

b) Jouir de ses droits civiques et être de bonne moralité;

c) Remplir les conditions d’aptitudes, physique et mentale, exigées pour l’exercice de la fonction. Un handicap physique ne peut pas être pris en considération pour l’accès à un poste publique seulement s’il n’a pas la formation exigée pour le poste; son handicap n’affecte en rien.

d) Etre reconnu, soit indemne de toute affection incompatible avec l’exercice des fonctions publiques, soit définitivement guéri;

e) Etre âgé de 18 ans au moins et de 40 ans au plus

Malgré cette inclusion légale des personnes vivant avec handicap, ces dernières sont généralement exclues à cause du manque d’éducation ou formation nécessaire pour accéder à la fonction publique.

  • L’accès à la justice

Les personnes handicapées appartiennent à la frange de la population vivant dans la précarité. Ainsi, l’accès effectif de personnes handicapées à la justice mérite une attention particulière. Outre, l’accessibilité des tribunaux, l’aide juridictionnelle permettra aux personnes handicapées de saisir plus souvent les juridictions internes. L’aide juridictionnelle était limité auparavant aux affaires criminelles, il aura fallu attendre la loi de 2011 qui permet aux justiciables sans revenu de bénéficier d’une prise en charge partielle ou totale par l’Etat des honoraires d’avocats ou d’huissiers, à tous les stades de procédures et ce, devant toutes les juridictions.

En pratique, la procédure d’obtention de l’aide judiciaire est trop longue dans la mesure où le justiciable désirant bénéficier de l’aide judiciaire doit adresser une demande au Bureau d’aide judiciaire, dirigé par le Président de la Cour Suprême ou par un haut magistrat nommé par lui.

  • Accès aux soins de santé

L’article, 6 des missions de service public,8 prévoit la protection de la santé de la population, et particulièrement des catégories de population courant des risques spécifiques telles que la femme enceinte, la mère et l’enfant, le jeune en milieu scolaire, le travailleur sur son lieu de travail, la personne vivant avec handicap et la personne âgée ; le soin et l’assistance au blessé, au malade, à la personne avec handicap, à la personne âgée, et d’une manière générale à toute personne dont l’état physique ou mental met dans l’impossibilité momentanée prolongée de subvenir à ses besoins ou de maintenir son autonomie, quels que soient son sexe, sa région, son ile natale ou son statut social.

Toutefois, il n’y a pas de prise en charge sanitaire réglementée pour une personne en situation de handicap.

11.3 L’Union des Comores accorde-t-elle des subventions pour handicap ou autre moyen de revenue en vue de soutenir les personnes vivant avec handicap?

Des efforts sont mis en œuvre par le ministère des affaires islamiques pour la dotation d’une pension trimestrielle de 10.000 FC (équivalant 28$) par personne/par trimestre, étant précisé que toutes les personnes handicapées ne sont pas bénéficiaires de cette indemnité.

« Quelques actions ponctuelles de distribution de denrées de première nécessité sont destinées aux personnes handicapées surtout pendant le mois du Ramadan mais il arrive que des erreurs d’inclusion et d’exclusion de bénéficiaires soient constatées ici et là », a déclaré Mr Ali M’MADI, secrétaire général de l’association des personnes handicapées SHIWE. Et il a ajouté que même les tonnes de dattes venant de l’Arabie Saoudite sont partagées inégalement entre ceux qui sont bien placés avant les personnes handicapées et orphelines.9

Toutefois, il n’y a ni Allocation Adulte Handicapé, ni Prestations financières, ni assistance sociale.

11.4 Les personnes vivant avec handicap ont-elles un droit de participation à la vie politique (représentation politique et leadership, vote indépendant, etc.) de l’Union des Comores?

Les personnes vivant avec handicap qui sont des représentations politiques et leadership sont très nombreuses aux Comores. Prenons l’exemple d’un ancien Président de la Grande île connu sous le nom de Mohamed ABDOUL WAHABI, ainsi que par exemple, le ministre de la défense, l’ancien président par intérim ou des enseignants du supérieur.

11.5 Catégories spécifiques expérimentant des questions particulières/vulnérabilité:
  • Femmes handicapées

L’Assemblée Fédérale, Loi N° 94-013/AF

Autorisant le Président de la République Fédérale Islamique des Comores (Nom de l’Union des Comores avant 2002) à ratifier la convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes conclue à New York le 18 décembre 1979. Délibérée et adoptée en séance du 7 Juin 1994, le président de l’assemblée MOHAMED SAID A. MCHANGAMA.

La discrimination dont souffre les personnes vivant avec handicap affecte les femmes doublement.

  • Enfants handicapés

La stratégie nationale sur la protection des enfants les plus vulnérables aux Comores, réalisée en 2004, affirme que les personnes qui souffrent d’un handicap mental, qui représentent près de 14,5% des handicapés, sont rejetés et maltraités par la population et parfois leur propre famille. Certains sillonnent les rues et font l’objet de brimades et de vexations morales.

La législation comorienne accorde une attention particulière à l’enfant. Ainsi, la loi relative à la protection de l’enfance dispose dans son premier article que « l’enfant occupe au sein de la famille une place privilégiée ». La notion d’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant fait partie du paysage juridique depuis plusieurs décennies. Une attention est accordée à ce principe par les tribunaux, les autorités administratives, les organes législatifs.

Avant même d’apparaitre dans la législation, cette notion était utilisée dans la motivation des décisions judiciaires. Par ailleurs, les magistrats évitent l’incarcération des mineurs, en l’absence de conditions de détention respectant les normes internationales dans les lieux de détention. En revanche, dans certains domaines, il est fait peu d’égard à l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant. Il s’agit notamment de l’enregistrement des naissances (ce phénomène est en baisse), du calendrier vaccinal qui n’est pas toujours suivi, des arrangements familiaux dans les cas d’abus sexuel, et du manque de suivi thérapeutique pour les enfants victimes de maltraitance.

Les enfants porteurs d’handicap connaissent un retard dans plusieurs domaines pour leur prise en charge et leurs protections effectives, bien qu’il y ait des avancées importantes qui vont dans l’amélioration de ces enfants.

12.1 Y a-t-il des mesures spécifiques débattues ou prises en compte présentement en Union des Comores au sujet les personnes handicapées?

En 2003, le Gouvernement de l’Union des Comores avec l’appui financier de l’UNICEF a réalisé une investigation sur la situation réelle de la vie quotidienne des personnes handicapées afin de définir une politique juste en faveur de l’amélioration des conditions de vie des handicapés. Cette investigation a été réalisée par Ahmed Djoumoi, Statisticien-Démographe et Djamaliddine Mohamed, Spécialiste en IEC. Cinq (5) principaux problèmes touchant les handicapés ont été identifiés:

  • Une offre de soins et de prise en charge insuffisante;
  • Une exclusion de la population handicapée du système éducatif;
  • La difficulté d’insertion des handicapés dans le milieu du travail;
  • La demande croissante des handicapés;
  • Le manque d’organisation des personnes handicapées.

Les politiques nationales de solidarité et de protection sociale ainsi que leurs plans d’actions ont proposé et développé des programmes et activités spécifiques pour les personnes vivant avec handicap qu’il faut réellement rendre opérationnelles.

12.2 Quelles réformes légales sont proposées? Quelle réforme légale aimeriez-vous voir en Union des Comores? Pourquoi?

J’aurais aimé voir aux Comores les déclarations qui suivent:

(1) en premier lieu, le respect des droits, notamment les articles suivants:

    • Le code du travail (article 120)
    • Le code de la santé publique (articles 142, 147, 157, 160)
    • Le code pénal (article 328)
    • Le code de l’information (article 6)
    • La loi portant orientation sur l’éducation (article 73)
    • La loi portant cadre général du système de santé (article 6)
    • La loi relative à l’apprentissage.
    • La loi cadre sur la protection sociale, qui attend sa promulgation
    • L’opérationnalisation de la loi 14-037 sur la protection et la promotion des personnes vivant avec handicap et promulguée par le décret 15-059/PR du 02/05/2015
    • L’opérationnalisation de la loi 17-012/AU relative à la couverture sanitaire universelle et promulgué par le Décret 17-105/PR du 05/10/2017

(2) en deuxième lieu, l’accès aux services sociaux de base:

  • Améliorer les conditions d’accès aux services de santé:
  • Réduire au minimum les coûts des soins de santé ou les rendre gratuits pour les personnes vivant avec handicap.
  • Faciliter la réforme des services de protection sociale, notamment la Caisse Nationale de prévoyance sociale.
  • Opérationnalisation de la loi sur la promotion et la protection des personnes vivant avec handicap et mise en place de l’assurance maladie généralisée qui est censée voir le jour d’ici la fin de l’année. Mise à l’échelle des programmes de filets sociaux au profit des vulnérables dont les personnes vivant avec handicap
  • Améliorer l’accès à l’éducation primaire, obligatoire, gratuite et adaptée :
  • La gratuité des fournitures scolaires;
  • L’adaptation de l’enseignement aux élèves qui souffrent de handicap;
  • L’aide financière aux études pour les familles les plus démunies avec l’institution d’une aide scolaire lors de la rentrée et la mise en œuvre du régime des prestations familiales conformément aux dispositions de l’arrêté 56-111 du 19 septembre 1956;
  • Et l’adaptation de l’enseignement aux élèves qui souffrent de handicap.
  • Opérationnalisation de la loi sur les personnes vivant avec handicap et la loi cadre sur la protection sociale adoptée en juin 2017 mais qui n’est pas promulguée.
  • Mettre en place des structures de protection:
  • La création d’un Centre National de Recherche sur les Droits de Personnes. Handicapées et renforcement de capacité professionnelle pour les handicapés.

Pour finir, en cas de subvention ou d’une donation:

  • Donner aux personnes vivant avec handicap eux même le plein droit de partager leur bien sans intervention d’un quelconque représentant politique non handicapé.
  • Assurer la satisfaction et la bonne gestion de ressources dédiées aux handicapés.
  • Et lutter contre la corruption et le détournement de biens des personnes vivant avec handicap.

Aux Comores, l’accès à certaines zones sont inaccessible aussi bien pour des personnes en bonne santé et bien portant que pour ces personnes en situation de handicap. Il y a des zones enclavées auxquelles sont confrontées les personnes qui ont tout de même les capacités et le courage pour y accéder.

En outre, j’aimerai que les autorités comoriennes:10

  • Traduisent la CDPH et les textes nationaux de handicap en actions sur le terrain;
  • Changent les perceptions sur la manière de concevoir le handicap et dépassent tout stéréotype compromettant les droits des personnes handicapées;
  • Mettent sur pied une institution en charge de la promotion et la protection des droits des personnes handicapées et doter de tous les moyens nécessaires pour son fonctionnement;
  • Reprennent les relations partenariales avec Handicap International afin de permettre les OSCs d’agir sur le handicap d’en faire bénéficier leurs prestations;
  • Introduisent un département handicap à l’université des Comores, afin de faciliter les recherches sur les questionnements de handicap;

Fasent appel à des organismes d’assistance sociale pour secourir les personnes handicapées et leurs familles encore démunies.

 


2. Document: http://www.droit-afrique.com/upload/doc/comores/Comores-Code-1995-santepubli que.pdf Source: Extrait du tableau 2.14, page 27, RGPH 91, Volume II: Analyse des données, Tome 2. Etat et structure de la population. Site web : https://www.comores-online.com/mwezinet/sante/santepartheme/handicap.htm (consulté le 10/01/2018).

3. Article 10 de RECUEIL DES TEXTESLEGISLATIFSD’ORDRE GENERAL,1979 - 30 Septembre 2005, TOME I.)

4. Pour toute ces informations voir, https://www.comores-online.com/mwezinet/sante/aidedvtsanit/shiwe/shiwe.htm . ( consulté le 14/02/2018).

5. Signé: Le Président de la FAHAC, ISMAEL SAID qui a contribué à la revue de ce rapport.

6. Cette déclaration a été faite suite à une interview, qui a eu lieu au Siege de l’association Shiwé le 05/12/2017.

7. Loi n°04-006 du 10 novembre 2004.

8. Loi sur LE SERVICE PUBLIC RELEVANT DE LA POLITIQUE NATIONALE DE LA SANTE.

9. Interview avec Mr Ali., le 05 /12/2017.

10. Le Président de la FAHAC, ISMAEL SAID qui a contribué à la revue de ce rapport


  • Satang Nabaneh
  • Project Officer, Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria
  • LLB (Hons) (The Gambia), LLM (Pretoria), LLD Candidate

  • Nabaneh ‘Country report: The Gambia’ (2018) 6 African Disability Rights Yearbook 232- 248
    http://doi.org/10.29053/2413-7138/2018/v6a11
  • Download article in PDF

1.1 What is the total population of your country?

The total population according to the 2013 national census was estimated at 1 857 181 inhabitants with an average annual growth rate of 3,1 per cent.1 The results indicate that women make up 50,5 per cent of the population and males 49,5 per cent.2

1.2 Methodology used to obtain the statistical data on the prevalence of disability in your country. What criteria are used to determine who falls within the class of persons with disabilities in your country?

In the 2013 census persons with disabilities were defined as those who were unable to perform, or were restricted in the performance of specific tasks or activities due to a loss of function of any part of the body or mind because of impairment or malformation.3 Information was collected on the following disabilities: visual; hearing; speech; physical; mental illness; epilepsy; and learning difficulties.4 Only disabilities that had lasted for more than six months were included.5 In both the 2003 and 2013 censuses questions relating to disability were restricted to normal households and persons aged two years and over.6

1.3 Total number and percentage of people with disabilities in your country

The Gambia has not conducted any recent national disability survey. The last survey was done in 1998, revealing that the overall disability prevalence rate was 1,6 per cent of the population. This gives a national prevalence rate by gender of 17,4 and 13,9 per 1 000 of the population for males and females respectively.7

The overall prevalence of disability in The Gambia according to the 2013 Population and Housing Census results is 1,2 per cent compared to 2,4 per cent in 2003. Compared to 2003, this demonstrates a 50 per cent decline in the prevalence of disability.8 The census report found incidences of disability to be higher in rural than in urban areas.9

1.4 Total number and percentage of women with disabilities in your country

The prevalence in 2013 in the case of males is 1,3 per cent compared to 1,2 per cent for females.10 Among females the incidence of disability is highest among those aged 30 to 34 years, followed by those aged 40 to 44 and those aged 25 to 29. In the age group 15 to 19 years, the proportions increase by age reaching a maximum at ages 30 to 34 when women are at the peak of their reproductive life.11

1.5 Total number and percentage of with children with disabilities in your country

The child disability rate in the 1998 National Disability Survey was 9,9 per 1 000, constituting 30,8 per cent of the disabled population in The Gambia. The disability prevalence rate for boys and girls was 11,2 and 8,5 per 1 000 respectively.12 On the contrary, the 2013 census registered a disability prevalence of 0,4 per cent or four out of every 1 000 children.13 The majority of the children with disabilities were males, accounting for 54,2 per cent, and females for 45,8 per cent.14 Data according to place of residence shows that in urban areas male children with disabilities constituted 50,2 per cent and females 49,8 per cent.15

1.6 Most prevalent forms of disability and/or peculiarities to disability in your country

The available data on persons with disabilities is outdated and there is a need to put in place identification and assessment mechanisms. However, the three major disabilities identified were visual impairments, physical disabilities and hearing impairments.

It can be observed that visual impairment was the most prevalent disability (0,9 per cent) in 2003 which in 2013 decreased to 0,3 per cent.16 The prevalence of physical disability decreased slightly from 0,5 per cent in 2003 to 0,4 per cent in 2013, while that of hearing impairment declined from 0,4 to 0,2 per cent over the same period.17 In the case of hearing difficulties and seizures females account for a relatively higher proportion (17,4 per cent and 5,5 per cent respectively) compared to males (16,0 per cent and 3,9 per cent respectively).18

Among children with disabilities, hearing difficulties was the most common type of disability.19 More than one-quarter (25,9 per cent) of children with disabilities had hearing difficulties. The second most prevalent disability among children was physical disability (25,7 per cent): ‘Seeing’ or problems with vision accounted for 16,3 per cent while speech difficulties (‘speaking’) accounted for 13,7 per cent. The proportion of children with ‘strange behaviour’ was approximately 8 per cent while 5,5 per cent experienced seizures.20

 

2.1 What is the status of the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD) in your country? Did your country sign and ratify the CRPD? Provide the date(s).

The Gambia ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and its Optional Protocol on 7 July 2015.

2.2 If your country have signed and ratified the CRPD, when is/was its country report due? Which government department is responsible for submission of the report? Did your country submit its report? If so, and if the report has been considered, indicate if there was a domestic effect of this reporting process. If not, what reasons does the relevant government department give for the delay?

In accordance with article 35 of the CRPD, states must initially report within two years of accepting the Convention and thereafter every four years. The Gambia, having ratified the Convention in 2015, was supposed to submit its initial report in 2017. To date no report has been submitted to the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD Committee).

2.3 While reporting under various other United Nation’s instruments, or under the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, or African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, did your country also report specifically on the rights of persons with disabilities in its most recent reports? If so, were relevant “Concluding Observations” adopted? If relevant, were these observations given effect to? Was mention made of disability rights in your state’s UN Universal Periodic Review (UPR)? If so, what was the effect of these observations/ recommendations?

The Gambia’s notoriety for non-reporting to human rights treaty bodies, especially at the African level, is well known.21 At the African regional level The Gambia submitted its initial report (1986-1992) on the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) in 1992.22 In accordance with article 62 of the African Charter, state parties are required to submit periodic report every two years. The Gambia’s first periodic report was submitted in 1994 for the years 1992-1994, and no further reports have been submitted to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Commission).23 Since its ratification of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (African Children’s Charter)24 and the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (African Women’s Protocol),25 The Gambia has never submitted any initial or periodic report.

However, the government has been giving more priority to reporting under the UN human rights system than the African system. With respect to The Gambia’s combined fourth and fifth periodic reports in 2015 the CEDAW Committee raised concerns about the fact that women and girls with disabilities have limited access to inclusive education, employment, health care and participation in political and public life.26 It recommended that the state domesticates the CRPD which should provide for the use of temporary special measures.

The Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC Committee) in its Concluding Observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of The Gambia in 2015, while commending measures taken by the country on the rights of children with disabilities, remained concerned regarding the high level of discrimination against and stigmatisation of children with disabilities.27 The Committee urged the state to ‘strengthen awareness-raising programmes, including campaigns, for the community at large, aimed at combating discrimination against and stigmatisation of children with disabilities’. It further encouraged the inclusion of children with disabilities in society and in the mainstream educational system, including by making schools more accessible.28

The Human Rights Council during the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) report on The Gambia recommended that it concludes the ongoing consultations regarding the draft Disability Bill to be adopted at the earliest possible time.29 This is yet to materialise.

2.4 Was there any domestic effect on your country’s legal system after ratifying the international or regional instrument in 2.3 above? Does the international or regional instrument that had been ratified require your country’s legislature to incorporate it into the legal system before the instrument can have force in your country’s domestic law? Have the courts of your country ever considered this question? If so, cite the case(s).

The Gambia, as in the case of many common law countries, follows a dualist approach to treaty implementation. In order to ensure enforceability, ratified international and regional instruments need to be incorporated into national law. After ratification of an instrument, an Act of the National Assembly is enacted in order for that particular law to have force locally.30 The Constitution has no specific provision regulating the relationship between international law and The Gambia’s national law and the application of such.31 The question of domestication has not been considered by the courts in the country.

As at April 2018 the CRPD had not yet been domesticated in The Gambia, although the government has noted its plans to domesticate it into law (a Disability Bill).32 The objective of the draft Bill is to ensure the full and effective, social and political participation of persons with disabilities.33 Once enacted, the law will also establish a National Council for persons with disabilities.

2.5 With reference to 2.4 above, has the United Nation’s CRPD or any other ratified international instrument been domesticated? Provide details.

As mentioned above, the CRPD had not been domesticated. Other domesticated international instruments include:34

  • the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)35 and the African Women’s Protocol which were given force of law nationally when in April 2010 the Women’s Act was passed and signed into law by the President on 28 May 2010;
  • the Children’s Act 2005 which was promulgated to ensure the effective enforcement of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)36 and the African Children’s Charter;37
  • the Trafficking in Persons Act 2017, a domesticated legislation of the Palermo Protocols.

3.1 Does the Constitution of your country contain provisions that directly address disability? If so, list the provisions and explain how each provision addresses disability.

Section 31 the 1997 Constitution of The Gambia specifically provides for the protection and rights of persons with disabilities. It states:

(1) The right of the disabled and handicapped to respect and human dignity shall be recognised by the State and society.

(2) Disabled persons shall be entitled to protection against exploitation and to protection against discrimination, in particular as regards access to health services, education and employment.

(3) In any judicial proceedings in which a disabled person is a party, the procedure shall take his or her condition into account.

Section 33 recognises the equality of all persons before the law and further includes disability as a ground of discrimination.

Section 216(2) under social objectives provides for the establishment of policies that protect the rights and freedoms of the disabled, the aged, children and other vulnerable members of society to ensure just and equitable social opportunities.38

3.2 Does the Constitution of your country contain provisions that indirectly address disability? If so, list the provisions and explain how each provision indirectly addresses disability.

The constitutional catalogue of rights and freedoms are provided for in chapter IV. These include the right to life (section 18); the right to personal liberty (section 19); protection from slavery and forced labour (section 20); protection from inhuman treatment (section 21); protection from deprivation of property (section 22); the right to privacy (section 23); freedom of speech, conscience, assembly, association, and movement (section 25); political rights (section 26); the right to marry (section 27); the rights of women (section 28); the rights of children (section 29); the right to education (section 30); rights of the disabled (section 31); the right to culture (section 32); and protection from discrimination (section 33).

Section 17 provides that all persons are entitled to their fundamental human rights and freedoms. Disability could be read into ‘other status’. The Constitution does not mention the kinds of disabilities protected, particularly as regards access to health services and education.

 

4.1 Does your country have legislation that directly addresses issues relating to disability? If so, list the legislation and explain how the legislation addresses disability.

Notwithstanding the abovementioned constitutional provisions, a comprehensive law for persons with disabilities is yet to be enacted.

4.2 Does your country have legislation that indirectly addresses issues relating to disability? If so, list the main legislation and explain how the legislation relates to disability.
  • Women’s Act39

Section 54 of the Women’s Act provides special protection to women with disabilities. It states:

The government shall take appropriate measures to:

(a) ensure the protection of women with disabilities and take specific measures commensurate with their physical, economic and social needs to facilitate their access to employment, professional and vocational training, as well as, their participation in decision-making; and

(b) ensure the rights of women with disabilities to freedom from violence, including sexual abuse, discrimination based on disability and the right to be treated with dignity.

  • Children’s Act

In addition to recognising and guaranteeing the rights of all children in The Gambia, section 12 of the Children’s Act 2005 stipulates that children in need of special protection, including children with disabilities, have the right to ‘any such measure that is appropriate to his or her physical, economic, emotional and mental needs’. However, children with disabilities do not feature strongly in the Act.

5.1 Have the courts (or tribunals) in your country ever decided on an issue(s) relating to disability? If so, list the cases and provide a summary for each of the cases with the facts, the decision(s) and the reasoning.

There is no data on decisions made by the judiciary in The Gambia in respect of an issue or issues relating to disability.

However, one communication came before the African Commission: Purohit & Another v The Gambia.40 The complainants alleged that in the Lunatics Detention Act (the principle instrument governing mental health) there is no definition of a lunatic, and that there are no provisions or requirements establishing safeguards during the diagnosis, certification and detention of such a patient.41 It was further alleged that the psychiatric unit was overcrowded, and that there was no requirement of consent to treatment or subsequent review of continued treatment.42 The Gambia was found in violation of articles 2, 3, 5, 7(1)(a) and (c), 13(1), 16 and 18(4) of the African Charter relating to non-discrimination; equality before the law; dignity; the right to have one’s cause heard; the right to participate in decision-making; the right to enjoyment of the highest attainable state of physical and mental health; and the right to special measures of protection.

The African Commission recommended that The Gambia repeal the Lunatics Detention Act and replace it with a new legislative regime for mental health in The Gambia compatible with the African Charter and international standards and norms for the protection of mentally-ill or disabled person as soon as possible; to create a body to review the cases of all persons detained under the Lunatics Detention Act; and to make appropriate recommendations for their treatment or release pending the first recommendation. It was also recommended that the state provide adequate medical and material care for persons suffering mental health problems in the territory of The Gambia. As a way to follow up on progress in implementing the decision, it was recommended that when submitting its next periodic report, The Gambia report back to the African Commission on the measures taken to comply with the recommendations of the Commission.

This case has been given no exposure by the government and is only known in non-governmental organisation (NGO) circles. Starting with the last recommendation, The Gambia has not since 1994 submitted any report to the African Commission.43

 

6.1 Does your country have policies or programmes that directly address disability? If so, list each policy and explain how the policy addresses disability.
  • Integrated National Disability Policy (2009-2018)

The Integrated National Disability Policy upholds the rights of adults and children with disabilities. It is aimed at promoting equal opportunities, rights and full participation of persons with disabilities in an enabling environment. The policy further aims to improve the living conditions of persons with disabilities by empowering them in society. Specific actions to be taken include advocacy; the strengthening of health care; development and implementation of regulations; improving accessible transportation; and the promotion of research on disability and related issues.

  • Draft Mental Health Policy (2007)

The Draft Mental Health Policy aims to reform and modernise the Lunatics Detention Act of 1917 to bring it in line with the provision regarding a human rights-based approach to mental health care. It upholds the principles of ‘equitableness to quality mental health care to children, women, the aged, migrants, and refugees’. Its objectives include promoting and improving the quality of mental health service provision; data collection on disability; awareness-creation at all levels; and research on disability. The policy and subsequent mental health law has not been adopted or formulated by the National Assembly.

  • National Health Policy (2012-2020)

The National Health Policy (NHP) aims at promoting and protecting the health of the population through the equitable provision of quality health care.44 The NHP recognises the needs of persons with disabilities in reducing morbidity and mortality to contribute significantly to the quality of life in the population.45 This includes setting up a national plan of action for the prevention of disability and the rehabilitation of persons with disabilities in accordance with the United Nations Standards Rules on Equalisation of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities by 2013.

  • The National Development Plan (2018-2021)

The National Development Plan (NDP)’s outcome 4.9 is on enhancing inclusiveness and participation of persons with disabilities in the National Development Agenda through a three-pronged approach:46 first, strengthening the policy framework on disability matters which focuses on the review and adoption of the National Integrated Disability Policy and the enactment of the Persons with Disabilities Bill; second, the social and economic empowerment of persons with disabilities which will mainstream these persons in programmes and projects with the overall goal of economic empowerment and financial independence; third, the provision of inclusive rehabilitation and habitation programmes and services for persons with disabilities. This will focus on decentralised rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities and specialised training to ensure service delivery at the community level. The government will also seek partnerships to strengthen the rehabilitation centres through the provision of equipment, tools, systems, and processes that improve effectiveness and efficiency.

6.2 Does your country have policies and programmes that indirectly address disability? If so, list each policy and describe how the policy indirectly addresses disability.
  • The Gender and Women’s Empowerment Policy (2010-2020)

The National Gender and Empowerment Policy framework serves as a comprehensive guide to the attainment of gender equity and equality through its implementation plan. It sets indicators to assist in gender mainstreaming from a human rights-based approach in planning, programming and implementation processes by sectoral departments, partners and other stakeholders. Its goal is to mainstream gender in all national and sectoral policies, programmes, plans and budgets to achieve gender equity and equality and women’s empowerment in the development process. One of its objectives is to enhance the performance of women as decision makers, which includes information and training for women, the youth and persons with disabilities to participate in leadership positions.

  • Education Sector Policy (2016-2030)

The Education Sector Policy (ESP) provides strategic direction for the provision of basic education that is non-discriminatory and takes disability into account.47 The policy places the emphasis on inclusiveness regarding special needs education. It is committed to providing support and equipment to enable pupils with mild disabilities to effectively participate in mainstream education.48

7.1 Other than the ordinary courts or tribunals, does your country have any official body that specifically addresses violation of the rights of people with disabilities? If so, describe the body, its functions and its powers.

There are no bodies other than courts that specifically address violations of the rights of persons with disabilities.

The Office of the Ombudsman was established under section 163 of the Constitution with powers defined in the same section. The 1997 Ombudsman Act set up the office of the Ombudsman as an independent public institution. Section 163(1) of the 1997 Constitution and sections 3(1) and (2) of the Ombudsman Act 1997 outline the functions of the Ombudsman, including investigating complaints of injustice and corruption; the abuse of power; maladministration; mismanagement; discrimination; and the unfair treatment of any person by a public officer in the exercise of official duties. The Office of the Ombudsman had established a National Human Rights Unit that has been addressing issues of disability as part of their mandate, for instance, for persons with disabilities to receive priority access to polling booths on election days.

8.1 Do you have a Human Rights Commission or an Ombudsman or Public Protector in your country? If so, does its remit include the promotion and protection of the rights of people with disabilities? If your answer is yes, also indicate whether the Human Rights Commission or the Ombudsman or Public Protector of your country has ever addressed issues relating to the rights of persons with disabilities.

The new political dispensation after 22 years of authoritarian rule is evident in the enactment of laws and policies focused on human rights. On 13 December 2017 the National Assembly passed the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) Act.49 On 13 January 2018 the President assented to the Act. The NHRC Act establishes a Commission for the promotion and protection of human rights in The Gambia. The NHRC is authorised to investigate and consider complaints of human rights violations in The Gambia, including violations by private persons and entities. The Commission is yet to be established.

9.1 Do you have organisations that represent and advocate the rights and welfare of persons with disabilities in your country? If so, list each organisation and describe its activities.

The Gambia Association of the Physically Disabled (GAPD), a registered national NGO, was established in 1993. GAPD aims to promote the avoidance of physical disabilities and the positive advocacy for equal opportunities, rights and lobbying institutions for the enhanced participation and integration for people with disabilities in The Gambia and in all strata of society. The Association also advocates educational sponsorship for children of disabled persons as well as children with disabilities. The Association works in partnership with the Department of Social Welfare (DSW) and other international NGOs operating in The Gambia.

In 1995 the Gambia Association of the Hard of Hearing, formed in 1992, was renamed Gambia Association of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (GADHOH). GADHOH cooperates with Ministries and agencies of the government of The Gambia and seeks to improve the lives of disabled people. The Association is linked to national and international organisations in the furtherance of its work. They also provide educational services.

The Gambia Organisation of the Visually Impaired (GOVI) was established in 1991 following an amalgamation of The Gambia Society for the Blind and The Gambia Association of the Blind. GOVI, a national organisation for visually-impaired persons, is recognised and registered by the Gambian government. GOVI undertakes a number of activities to help uplift the status of the blind and visually-impaired in The Gambia. The main aim of GOVI is the prevention of blindness; the rehabilitation of the visually-impaired; and the active promotion of the rights to equal opportunities and full participation in all spheres of national development and at all levels for the blind and visually-impaired.

The Gambia Epilepsy Association (GEA) aims to improve the quality of life for epilepsy sufferers and their carers via equal opportunities, self-sufficiency, supervised medication and counselling.

The Gambian Physical Disability Sports Association (GODSA) is a civil society organisation that represents young, physically-challenged people and is committed to advocating recreational programmes and facilities.

The National Union of Disabled Youths (NUDY) is a registered organisation representing disabled Gambian youths. NUDY works to ensure the empowerment of young people.

The Gambia Organisation for Learning Difficulties (GOLD) offers short-term stays for children with learning problems. Hart House gives parents and care providers respite from caring for their children and to exchange ideas and progress reports. The respite home covers the developmental stage of children and helps them attain their highest potential by providing a number of sets of stimulating learning and play activities.

The Rural Support Organisation for the Disabled (RSOD) is a village-focused NGO. It was established because most DPOs were concentrated in the western half of The Gambia and those in rural areas were not represented by their own associations. The organisation campaigns for people with disabilities to gain access to public health services, general amenities and medical treatment.

Since the 1950s Sightsavers - The Gambia has been testing and treating people with eye diseases such as cataracts. The organisation also provides spectacles for those who need these and they help to set up new vision centres in the country, which are publicised through radio shows, billboards and posters.

9.2 In the countries in your region, are DPOs organised/coordinated at a national and/or regional level?

The Gambia Federation of the Disabled (GFD) is the national umbrella body for disability. GFD has eight DPOs registered under it. It was formed by the Disabled Peoples Organisations and its history of formation dates back to the early 1990s. The GFD advocates the promotion, protection and empowerment of persons with disabilities and encourages, supports and monitors activities by stakeholders in the disability sector that improve the living conditions of the disabled. Eight DPOs are registered with GFD.

9.3 If your country has ratified the CRPD, how has it ensured the involvement of DPOs in the implementation process?

Gambian DPOs have a working relationship with the Department of Social Welfare relating to issues of persons with disabilities. This has ensured interaction with the disability sector and government.

9.4 What types of actions have DPOs themselves taken to ensure that they are fully embedded in the process of implementation?

The Gambia Federation of the Disabled (GFD) actively participates in lobbying for the domestication of the CRPD. The GFD with support from partners and with members of the National Assembly drafted a disability Bill which is yet to be enacted.

9.5 What, if any, are the barriers DPOs have faced in engaging with implementation?

The main barrier is the lack of political will in light of the fact that the process with respect to the Disability Bill started six years ago. Other barriers include funding for DPOs intersecting with the societal stigmatising view of disability issues.

9.6 Are there specific instances that provide ‘best-practice models’ for ensuring proper involvement of DPOs?

No.

9.7 Are there any specific outcomes regarding successful implementation and/or improved recognition of the rights of persons with disabilities that resulted from the engagement of DPOs in the implementation process?

The ratification of the CRPD itself may be seen as an important milestone for the protection and recognition of the rights of persons with disabilities. This was due to the lobbying and engagement of DPOs in the ratification process. However, the non-domestication of the CRPD limits the full realisation of the rights provided in the CRPD.

9.8 Has your research shown areas for capacity building and support (particularly in relation to research) for DPOs with respect to their engagement with the implementation process?

Awareness and understanding of laws impede the extent to which DPOs can adequately engage with the implementation process. Funding and capacity building also remain a challenge.

9.9 Are there recommendations that come out of your research as to how DPOs might be more comprehensively empowered to take a leading role in the implementation processes of international or regional instruments?

Training on human rights instruments and processes in general for DPOs is critical. The focus should also be on funding and building capacity in order to ensure effective engagement of DPOs with the implementation process in the future. Specific areas of capacity building and support should include proposal development, fundraising, lobbying and advocacy with policy makers, legislators and other relevant stakeholders.

9.10 Are there specific research institutes in your region that work on the rights of persons with disabilities and that have facilitated the involvement of DPOs in the process, including in research?

There are currently no specific research institutes in The Gambia that work on the rights of persons with disabilities, which have facilitated the involvement of DPOs in the process.

10.1 Do you have a government department or (departments) that is/are specifically responsible for promoting and protecting the rights and welfare of person with disabilities? If so, describe the activities of the department(s).

The Department of Social Welfare (DSW) of the Ministry of Health is responsible for protecting the rights of persons with disabilities. The DSW’s Disability Unit works with GOVI and the School for the Deaf and Blind to help educate children with disabilities and to develop relevant skills. The department also works with international donors to supply wheelchairs and technical aid to some persons with disabilities. Several NGOs have sought to improve awareness of the rights of persons with disabilities and encouraged their participation in sports and other physical activities. However, according to the UNICEF and Ministry of Basic and Secondary Education (MOBSE) national disability study focusing on children with disabilities, the disability unit does not maintain comprehensive records.50 The main challenges faced by the Disability Unit are limited financial and human resources to be able to serve every part of the country effectively. The Disability Unit has limited presence in rural areas.51

11.1 Contemporary challenges of persons with disabilities in your country

Discrimination and stigmatisation of persons with disabilities are a manifestation of inequality and a reflection of social and religious norms.52 It serves as both a cause and consequence of poverty. Other challenges include a lack of access to education and lack of infrastructure for persons with disabilities. These persons are very vulnerable in The Gambia due to superstition and the widespread prevalence of negative attitudes in society, ignorance about disability issues and neglect.53

11.2 Describe the contemporary challenges of persons with disabilities, and the legal responses thereto, and assess the adequacy of these responses

Generally, no information exists regarding systematic data collection on discriminatory actions against people by reason of disability.

  • Access to social security

There is scant evidence of social security services directed at persons with disabilities in The Gambia which makes life very difficult for them. Some end up begging on the streets. Some parents of children with disabilities are given micro-credit loans to boost their incomes.54 Major challenges relating to social protection services include the absence or lack of a social protection policy environment; a central coordinating body for social protection programmes; a lack of quality data for programming; inadequate financial, material and human capacity and competing interests mean that all people in need of protection are not always reached.

  • Access to public transport and buildings

There is no explicit legal guarantee of access to air travel and other transportation, nor any requirement to provide for access to buildings for persons with disabilities. Very few public buildings in the country are accessible to persons with disabilities.55 The majority of these persons live in rural areas and have a limited ability to move from their home to seek medical care or other services in cities due to transport costs. There generally is limited and inadequate access to premises and facilities, including schools.56

  • Access to education

Disability is a hindrance to enrolment and the retention of both girls and boys in schools, as they still face socio-cultural and physical barriers. While the situation is improving in the case of children with mild visual and hearing impairments, children with mental, learning and multiple disabilities and those afflicted with epilepsy still face socio-cultural and physical barriers.57 The few persons with disabilities that attend school face challenges throughout their schooling because of the lack of appropriate infrastructure and the lack of knowledge on how to give access to this group. Even after acquiring an education, it is very difficult for them to obtain employment. This is due to their disability and the fact that most people view disability as an inability to do anything. There also ae inadequate special facilities and services to enhance the educational environment of children with disabilities in mainstream schools.58

  • Access to health services

Access to health services is also a challenge because of the inclusive service provision at health service points in the country. Health personnel are not oriented on special needs of persons with disabilities. They are treated the same as other people at service points. Access to service points is also impeded by mobility and infrastructural constraints as rehabilitation services are not available in most communities in remote areas.

  • Access to employment and vocational training

Most Gambians living with disabilities are marginalised due to the stigma attached to disability. From childhood persons with disabilities are treated differently. As a result, they have no way of obtaining gainful employment to enable them to live independently. The majority of persons with disabilities take up begging for alms as a means of survival. In its National Development Plan, the Barrow government recognises the need to integrate and mainstream people with disabilities in all youth and sports initiatives as a means of economic empowerment and financial independence. The strategy to be employed includes engaging with representative bodies for persons with disabilities in programme formulation, implementation and monitoring.59 In partnership with civil society organisations, the government’s theory of change for empowering youths with disabilities will be anchored on vocational training, combating stigma and discrimination, financial inclusion and strengthening organisations working to strengthen organisational development for disability support institutions.

  • Access to recreation and sport

The Ministry of Youth and Sports has been working towards creating an enabling environment for young people to engage in sporting and recreational events, with a specific focus on promoting the involvement and participation of youths with disabilities. They have taken part in international paralympic games competitions.

  • Access to justice

There is no specific programme to support access to justice for persons with disabilities. They face numerous obstacles in exercising their right to access justice. These obstacles include poverty and an inability to afford legal fees, inaccessible buildings and transport and a lack of awareness of their rights.

Legal aid is provided through the National Agency for Legal Aid (NALA). The Legal Aid Act 2008 not only continues to provide legal aid for children and persons charged with offences punishable with death and life imprisonment, but it has also widened the scope of legal aid to include persons who earn not more than the minimum wage specified by the state. This minimum wage standard will act as the poverty line, therefore giving all persons who earn below such amount the right to legal aid in any cases in which they may be involved, both civil and criminal. This assistance can take the form of legal advice or full legal representation.

The Female Lawyers Association-Gambia (FLAG) also provides free legal aid services to women. Women and girls with disabilities can benefit from their pro bono assistance.

11.3 Do people with disabilities have a right to participation in political life (political representation and leadership) in your country?

Persons with disabilities have a right to take part in political life in The Gambia. The Constitution provides for the right of everyone to exercise suffrage and vote to choose one’s representative. A person with a disability currently is a member of the National Assembly nominated by President Barrow.

11.4 Are people with disabilities’ socio-economic rights, including right to health, education and other social services protected and realised in your country?

The right to basic education is guaranteed in the Constitution. Socio-economic rights, including the right to health, are not justiciable. The realisation of the socio-economic rights of persons with disabilities requires an interaction of policies in numerous sectors, institutions and policies.

11.5 Specific categories experiencing particular issues/vulnerability:
  • Women with disabilities

Disability is a sensitive issue in The Gambia.60 Negative attitudes, stigma and discrimination are the major challenges that face women with disabilities in their homes and communities. Women with disabilities continue to have limited access to inclusive education, health, employment and participation in political and public life.61

  • Children with disabilities

Children with disabilities continue to face discrimination in society, and their access to structures and facilities, including schools, remains inadequate or limited.62 These children may be seen on the streets or accompanying adult beggars, even though the Children’s Act 2005 regards such children as in need of care and protection.

In addition, these children face stigmatising attitudes towards themselves and their mothers. Societies in The Gambia believe that disability is a ‘curse’ for the mother’s sin; a sacrifice for wealth in the family; or a punishment for wickedness. 63

12.1 Are there any specific measures with regard to persons with disabilites being debated or considered in your country at the moment?

The vision of the National Development Plan of the new democratic government includes transforming The Gambia into a country that where a caring and nurturing environment exists PWDs. In committing itself to ensuring the promotion and protection of the rights of PWDs, government pledges to strengthen policy and legal framework including the adoption of the draft National Integrated Disability Policy and the enactment of the Persons with Disabilities Bill.64

12.2 What legal reforms are being raised? Which legal reforms would you like to see in your country? Why?

The enactment of the disability law to ensure the full protection and realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities. Additionally, there is need for support and strengthening of DPOs in enhancing their capacities as organisations engaged in disability.


1. Gambia Bureau of Statistics (GBOS) ‘The Gambia 2013 Population and Housing Census Preliminary Results’ (2013) 6.

2. As above, 8.

3. GBOS 2013 ‘Population and Housing Census: National disability report’ (2013) vi.

4. As above.

5. As above.

6. GBOS (n 3) 1.

7. National Disability Survey (1998) 10 http://www.gbos.gov.gm/uploads/survey/NATIONAL %20DISABILITY%20SURVEY.pdf (accessed 5 March 2018).

8. GBOS 2013 (n 3) 3.

9. GBOS 2013 7-8.

10. GBOS 2013 3.

11. GBOS 2013 4.

12. National Disability Survey (n 7) 12.

13. The children age cohort started from persons aged 2 to 17 years.

14. GBOS 2013 (n 3) 10.

15. GBOS 2013 11.

16. This could be attributed to the success of the National Eye Care Programme.

17. GBOS 2013 (n 3) 3.

18. GBOS 2013 8.

19. GBOS 2013 12.

20. GBOS ‘2013 Population and Housing Census: The children report’ (2013) 6.

21. S Nabaneh ‘The impact of the African Charter and the Maputo Protocol in The Gambia’ in VO Ayeni (ed) The impact of the African Charter and the Maputo Protocol in selected African states (2016) 87-88.

22. ‘Report of The Gambia in accordance with article 62 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights’ http://www.achpr.org/files/sessions/12th/state-reports/1st-1986-1992/staterep1_gambia_1992_eng.pdf (accessed 15 February 2018).

23. Periodic Report, ACHPR/PR/GAM/XVI http://www.achpr.org/files/sessions/16th/state-reports/1st-1992-1994/staterep1_gambia_1994_eng.pdf (accessed 15 February 2018).

24. Ratified on 14 December 2000.

25. The Gambia ratified the African Women’s Protocol on 25 May 2005 with blanket reservations on article 5 (elimination of harmful practices), article 6 (marriage), article 7 (separation, divorce and annulment of marriage) and article 4 (health and reproductive rights). The reservations were withdrawn in June 2006.

26. CEDAW Committee ‘Concluding Observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of The Gambia’ CEDAW/C/GMB/CO/4-5 (2015) para 43.

27. CRC Committee ‘Concluding Observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of The Gambia’ (CRC/C/GAM/CO/2-3) para 58.

28. CRC Committee (n 27) para 59.

29. See Human Rights Council ‘Draft report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Gambia’ A/HRC/WG.6/20/L.3 (2014).

30. S Nabaneh ‘Women’s political participation and representation in The Gambia: One step forward or two back?’ (2013) commissioned by TANGO.

31. Nabaneh (n 21) 77-78.

32. The National Development Plan (2018-2021) 60.

33. The Gambia Federation of the Disabled with support from the International Republication Institute (IRI) and Education for All Campaign Network - The Gambia (EFANET), in consultation with the members of the National Assembly drafted a Bill to meet the needs of persons with disabilities. The Bill has since 2012 been in the process. It was validated in October 2017. See ‘Disability Bill to improve lives of physically challenged’ The Point 25 October 2017 http://thepoint.gm/africa/gambia/article/disability-bill-to-improve-lives-of-physically-challenged (accessed 10 April 2018).

34. See Nabaneh (n 21) 81-82.

35. Ratified on 16 April 1993.

36. Ratified on 9 August 1990.

37. Ratified on 14 December 2000.

38. This section is found under State Directive Principles and, thus, is not justiciable.

39. See Women’s Act 2010 https://www.lawhubgambia.com/womens-rights/ (accessed 10 February 2018).

40. (2003) AHRLR 96 (ACHPR 2003).

41. Purohit (n 41) para 4.

42. Purohit para 5.

43. Nabaneh (n 21) 88-89.

44. Ministries of Basic and Secondary Education and Higher Education Research Science and Technology ‘Education Sector Policy 2016-2030’ (2016) 6.

45. Education Sector Policy (n 45) 16.

46. National Development Plan DP (n 32) 60-61.

47. Ministry of Basic Education and Secondary Education and Higher Education, Research and Technology ‘Education Sector Policy 2016-2030’ (2016) 2-3.

48. Education Sector Policy (n 48) 14.

49. See NHRC Act https://www.lawhubgambia.com/national-human-rights-act/ (accessed 15 February 2018).

50. UNICEF/MOBSE ‘National disability study report’ (2013) 16.

51. UNICEF/MOBSE (n 51) 40.

52. See YM Bah & L Sidibeh ‘Disability and integration: Gambian experience study report’ (xx).

53. See the Integrated National Disability Policy (2009-2018).

54. Sight Savers International provides financial support so that GOVI can offer additional micro-credit loans to people with disabilities.

55. US Department of State ‘The Gambia 2016 Human Rights Report’ (2016) 26.

56. CRC Committee (n 27) para 9.

57. National Development Plan (n 32) 239.

58. See UNICEF/Government of The Gambia ‘Disabled children in mainstream schools survey’ (2000).

59. National Development Plan (n 32) 85.

60. GBOS ‘2013 Population and Housing Census: The gender report’ (2013) 36.

61. CEDAW Committee (n 26) para 42.

62. See UNICEF/MOBSE (n 51).

63. UNICEF/MOBSE 17.

64. NDP (n 41) 71-72.


  • Marianne Séverin
  • Associate researcher at « Les Afriques dans le Monde »
  • (LAM)/Science Po Bordeaux

  • M Séverin ‘Country report: Benin’ (2018) 6 African Disability Rights Yearbook 141-160
    http://doi.org/ 10.29053/2413-7138/2018/v6a7
  • Download article in PDF

Summary

The Beninese population is 10 008 749. Persons with disabilities are 92 495 (1,02 per cent) of the total population). The most prevalent forms of disabilities include visual, hearing disabilities, cerebral driving impairment, motor disabilities, intellectual disabilities and psychosocial disabilities. Benin has signed and ratified both the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) , as well as its Optional protocol. However, it has yet to submit its country report as required by the CRPD. The Constitution of Benin directly as well as indirectly provides for the rights of persons with disabilities under its equality clause. Several pieces of legislation directly address disability. The key ones are laws on the protection and promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and the prevention of disabilities. The Constitutional Court of Benin has considered disability rights in two cases. In one case it found that failure to accommodate a visually impaired job applicant by not providing an examination in braille was discriminatory and in violation of the constitutional right to equality. In another case, it rejected a claim of a job advertisement that required applicants to ‘enjoy a good physical condition and good health’ was discriminatory as to violate the constitutional right to equality. Benin has policies that directly address persons with disabilities, including the National Policy of Protection and Integration of Disabled People (2012-2021) and paragraph 5 of Law 98-004 which regulates the rehabilitation and the employment of persons with disabilities. It also has a programme for accommodating learners with disabilities in ordinary schools. Other than ordinary courts or tribunals, Benin has no official body which specifically addresses the violation of the rights of persons with disabilities. It has a National Human Rights Commission but the Commission is yet to be operational. Several organisations represent the rights of persons with disabilities in Benin, under the umbrella of the Federation of Associations of Disabled People in Benin. At government level, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Micro-finance oversees organs of state that serve persons with disabilities, special schools, and vocational training centres. Persons with disabilities encounter multiple levels of exclusion and discrimination across sectors. Attitudinal beliefs that stem from superstition are still prevalent. There is a lack of access to public buildings, public transport, education, vocational training, health care, and employment. Benin needs to accelerate the implementation of laws that foster disability rights. Also, it needs more reliable data on persons with disabilities.

Benin country Report 2018-1

1.1 Quelle est la population totale de la République du Bénin?

Selon le dernier Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat (RGPH) de 2013, la population béninoise est évaluée à 10 008 749 habitants.1

1.2 Méthodologie employée en vue d’obtenir des données statistiques sur la prévalence du handicap en République du Bénin. Quels sont les critères utilisés pour `déterminer qui fait partie de la couche des personnes handicapées en République du Bénin?

La République du Bénin n’a effectué aucun recensement spécifique de la population des personnes en situation de handicap. Cependant dans le cadre d’un recensement national mené en 2013 par l’Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique (INSAE) - RGPH-4-, dépendant du Ministère du Développement, de l’Analyse Economique et de la Prospective. (ministère ayant changé de dénomination pour Ministère du Plan et du Développement), le nombre et le pourcentage des personnes handicapées ont été prises en compte par zones urbaine et rurale, par départements (12) et selon les formes de handicap. Aucune définition de la personne handicapée n’a été donnée dans le document final.2

1.3 Quel est le nombre total et le pourcentage des personnes handicapées en République du Bénin

Selon le RGPH-4, 2013, sur l’ensemble de la population de 10 008 749 habitants, sont recensés 92 495 personnes en situation de handicap dans la République du Bénin, soit 1,02% de la population totale.3

1.4 Quel est le nombre total et le pourcentage des femmes handicapées en République du Bénin?

Aucun recensement n’a été mené sur le nombre total et le pourcentage de femmes en situation de handicap en République du Bénin.

1.5 Quel est le nombre total et le pourcentage des enfants handicapés en République du Bénin?

Aucun recensement récent au niveau national n’a été mené sur le nombre total et le pourcentage d’enfants en situation de handicap en République du Bénin. Cependant, le document de Politique Nationale de Protection et d’Intégration des Personnes Handicapées (PNPIPH) - 2012-2021 - donne les statistiques suivantes, selon le Troisième Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitation (RGPH3) de 2002:4 les enfants en situation de handicap de moins de 10 ans représentent 11,6% de la population totale (6 769 914 habitants recensés).

1.6 Quelles sont les formes de handicap les plus répandues en République du Bénin?

Il ressort du recensement que les formes de handicap les plus répandues sont respectivement le handicap visuel (37,4%), suivi du handicap auditif (18%), du handicap moteur cérébral (16,9%), du handicap moteur (16,4%), et pour finir des handicaps intellectuel (6,5%) et psychosociaux (5%).

2.1 Quel est le statut de la Convention des Nations Unies relative aux Droits des Personnes Handicapées (CDPH) en République du Bénin? La République du Bénin a-t-il signé et ratifié la CDPH? Fournir le(s) date(s). La République du Bénin a-t-il signé et ratifié le Protocole facultatif? Fournir le(s) date(s).

La République du Bénin a signé la Convention Relative aux Personnes Handicapées (CRDPH), ainsi que le Protocole facultatif se rapportant à la CRDPH le 8 février 2008. Les CRDPH et Protocole ont été ratifiés le 5 juillet 2012. 5 Lors de l’adhésion à cette convention, la République du Bénin n’a formulé aucune réserve, ni introduit une quelconque déclaration interprétative.

2.2 Si la République du Bénin a signé et ratifié la CDPH, quel est/était le délai de soumission de son rapport? Quelle branche du gouvernement est responsable de la soumission du rapport? La République du Bénin a-t-il soumis son rapport? Sinon quelles sont les raisons du retard telles qu’avancées par la branche gouvernementale en charge?

Conformément à l’Art. 35 de la CDPH, la République du Bénin était tenue de soumettre son rapport initial dans un délais de deux ans, soit à la date du 05 juillet 2014. 6 La République du Bénin n’a soumis aucun rapport, le vote de la Loi portant protection et promotion des Droits des Personnes Handicapées n’ayant été voté au Parlement Béninois que le 13 avril 2017. Cependant le processus d’élaboration du rapport a été lancé en 2017, et est conduit par le Ministère de la Justice et de la Législation; ce processus avance lentement. Pour pallier cette lenteur, la Fédération des Associations des Personnes Handicapées Bénin (FAPHB), quant à elle, entend soumettre un rapport alternatif.

2.3 Si la République du Bénin a soumis le rapport au 2.2 et si le comité en charge des droits des personnes handicapées avait examiné le rapport, veuillez indiquer si le comité avait émis des observations finales et des recommandations au sujet du rapport de la République du Bénin. Y’avait-il des effets internes découlant du processus de rapport liés aux questions handicapées du Bénin?

Non le Benin n’a pas soumis son rapport.

2.4 En établissant un rapport sous divers autres instruments des Nations Unies, la Charte Africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples ou la Charte Africaine relative aux Droits et au bien-être de l’Enfant, la République du Bénin a-t-il également fait mention spécifique du droit des personnes handicapées dans ses rapports les plus récents? Si oui, les observations finales adoptées par les organes statutaires ont-elles fait mention du handicap? Si pertinent, ces observations ont-elles été suivies d’effet? Etait-il fait mention des droits des handicapés dans le rapport de la Revue Périodique Universelle (RPU) des Nations Unies de la République du Bénin? Si oui, quels étaient les effets de ces observations ou recommandations?
  • Comité contre la torture

Dans sa liste des points à traiter avant rédaction du rapport (LOIPR) publié le 19 janvier 2010, le Comité ne mentionne pas spécifiquement les Droits des personnes en situation de handicap. Dans son Rapport, la République du Bénin fait mention spécifique des droits des personnes en situation de handicap, sur la question de l’Amélioration du cadre normatif au plan national. Il a été rapporté d’importantes améliorations par la Loi no 2011-17 du 23 août 2011 portant autorisation de ratification de la Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées et de son protocole facultatif. 7 Le Code de l’enfant prévoit la protection des enfants handicapés et des enfants malades. La République du Bénin demande à être accompagné et appuyé dans ses efforts visant à assurer une meilleure sensibilisation, prévention et sanction des actes et attitudes qui s’assimilent à la torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants, afin que l’homme, la personne handicapée ne soit pas victimes de tels actes, et que tous les droits affirmés par la Convention de lutte contre la torture et autres peines ou traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants soient pleinement réalisés. 8

  • Comité des droits de l’homme

La République du Bénin a fait mention spécifique du Droit des personnes handicapées dans son rapport publié le 3 novembre 2013, en faisant mention de l’adoption de la loi n° 2011-17 du 23 août 2011 portant autorisation de ratification de la Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées et de son Protocole facultatif. 9 Le Comité des Droits de l’Homme dans ses observations finales salue la ratification de la Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées et son Protocole facultatif, en juillet 2012. 10

  • Comité pour l’élimination de la discrimination à l’égard des femmes

La République du Bénin ne fait pas mention spécifique, dans son rapport publié le 20 mars 2012, des Droits des personnes en situation de handicap. 11 Dans la liste des points à traiter, publié le 18 mars 2013 - corrigé le 1e mai 2013 - le comité ne fait pas mention spécifique des Droits des personnes en situation de handicap. 12 Cependant, la République du Bénin dans sa réponse à la liste des points à traiter fait mention de la promotion de la scolarisation des enfants en situation de handicap. 13

  • Comité de droits économiques, sociaux et culturels

La République du Bénin a fait mention spécifique, dans son rapport publié le 29 mars 2007, du Droit des personnes en situation de handicap. 14 L’Etat béninois a pris des mesures pour favoriser cette catégorie de travailleurs notamment par les mesures législatives. Les articles 31 et suivants de la Loi no 98-004 du 27 janvier 1998 prévoient les mesures en faveur des personnes handicapées. Selon ces dispositions, les personnes handicapées dont leur qualité est définie, ne doivent faire l’objet d’aucune discrimination et leurs employeurs bénéficient des conditions particulières. Or le décret devant rendre applicables lesdites conditions particulières n’a toujours pas été pris à ce jour. Ainsi, ces mesures spécifiques prévues par les articles 31 à 34 du code du travail béninois restent inapplicables. Le Conseil économique et social demande à l’Etat béninois, dans sa liste des points à traiter s’il envisage l’adoption d’une loi spécifique visant à interdire la discrimination à l’égard des personnes handicapées et à introduire des obligations légales garantissant l’accès des personnes handicapées aux bâtiments.15 Dans sa réponse à la liste des points à traiter, la République du Bénin précise que suite à l’adoption de la Constitution, du 11 décembre 1990 qui énonce à l’Art. 26, « l’État assure à tous, l’égalité devant la loi sans distinction d’origine, de race, de sexe, de religion, de position sociale ... , il veille sur les handicapés ...». Enfin, le comité constate, lors de l’adoption des observations finales, avec préoccupation, l’absence d’une loi spécifique interdisant la discrimination à l’égard des personnes handicapées et introduisant des obligations légales garantissant l’accès des personnes handicapées aux bâtiments.16

  • Comité des droits de l’enfant

Dans son rapport la République du Bénin mentionne spécifiquement les droits des personnes en situation de handicap, le Gouvernement du Bénin apporte des éléments de réponses aux préoccupations du Comité sur les infanticides rituels d’enfants.17 Le Bénin mène des campagnes contre les châtiments corporels contre les enfants handicapés. Selon la loi sur la Santé et le bien-être (Art. 6, 18, par. 3, 23, 24, 26 et 27; par. 1 à 3) le Bénin enquête sur les personnes handicapées.

La Déclaration de la République du Bénin, soumise le 20 janvier 2016, mentionne spécifiquement les droits des personnes en situation de handicap.18

  • Commission africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples

Dans le 42ième Rapport d’activités de la Commission africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuple, présenté conformément à l’Art. 54 de la Charte Africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples, lors de la 60ième Session ordinaire, l’état de présentation des Rapports montrait que le Bénin fait parti des 17 pays ayant plus de 3 rapports en retard.

  • Examen Périodique Universel19

La République du Bénin a mentionné dans son rapport son adhésion à la Convention Relative aux Droit des Personnes Handicapées et le Protocole facultatif s’y rapportant, et le vote de la Loi du 13 avril 2017 portant protection et promotion des Droits des Personnes Handicapées. Plusieurs Etats examinateurs ont salué l’adhésion de la République du Bénin à la Convention Relative aux Droits des Personnes Handicapées, ainsi que le vote de la loi portant promotion et protection des droits des personnes handicapées. Cependant, le Monténégro s’est fait l’écho des préoccupations exprimées par le Comité des Droits de l’enfant A/HRC/37/10 8 GE.17-23482 au sujet de l’exclusion des enfants handicapés. Aux termes des conclusions et/ou recommandations examinés et ayant recueilli son adhésion, le Bénin s’engage à adopter les politiques nécessaires pour que les enfants handicapés bénéficient de l’égalité des chances en matière d’éducation et veiller à ce qu’ils soient pleinement intégrés dans le système scolaire et ne fassent l’objet d’aucune forme de discrimination (Etat de Palestine); à faire en sorte que les enfants handicapés aient accès aux soins de santé et lutter contre la stigmatisation et les préjugés dont ils sont victimes (Timor-Leste); accélérer la promulgation de la Loi relative à la promotion et à la protection des droits des personnes handicapées (Zimbabwe).

2.5 Y avait-il un quelconque effet interne sur le système légal de la République du Bénin après la ratification de l’instrument international ou régional au 2.4 ci-dessus?

La ratification de la Convention Relative aux Droits des Personnes Handicapées (CRDPH) et du Protocol facultatif, par le Bénin, le 5 juillet 2012, a eu pour effet immédiat, l’adoption de la Politique Nationale de Promotion et d’Intégration des Personnes Handicapées (2012-2021), puis ensuite la Loi n°2017-06 du 13 avril 2017 portant Protection et Promotion des Droits des Personnes Handicapées.

2.6 Les traités internationaux ratifiés deviennent-ils automatiquement loi nationale sous votre système légal? Si oui y a-t-il des cas où les cours et tribunaux appliquent directement les dispositions du traité international?

Selon l’Art. 145 de la Constitution de la République du Bénin, 11 décembre 1990, « les traités de paix, les traités ou accords relatifs à l’organisation internationale, ceux qui engagent les finances de l’Etat, ceux qui modifient les lois internes de l’Etat, ceux comportent cession, échange ou adjonction de territoire, ne peuvent être ratifiés qu’en vertu d’une loi ». « Si la Cour Constitutionnelle saisie par le Président de la République par le Président de l’Assemblée Nationale a déclaré qu’un engagement international comporte une clause contraire à la Constitution, l’autorisation de le ratifier ne peut intervenir qu’après la révision de la Constitution » (Art. 146). Selon l’Art. 147, « les traités ou accords régulièrement ratifiés ont, dès leur publication, une autorité supérieure à celle des lois, sous réserve pour chaque accord ou traité, de son application par l’autre partie ».

2.7 En référence au 2.4 ci-dessus, la Convention des Nations Unies relative aux Droits des Personnes Handicapées CDPH ou tout autre instrument international ratifié, en tout ou en partie, a-t-il été incorporé textuellement dans la législation nationale? Fournir les détails.

La ratification de la CDPH vaut son incorporation dans la législation béninoise ; une procédure particulière ne semblait pas nécessaire. En fait, à la suite d’un long processus de concertation entre le gouvernement et les ONGs, Associations des personnes handicapées et autres, il a été adopté une loi spécifique pour la protection des personnes handicapées le 13 avril 2017 qui a été promulguée le 30 septembre 2017.

 

Benin country Report 2018-3
3.1 La constitution de la République du Bénin contient-elle des dispositions concernant directement le handicap? Si oui énumérez les dispositions et expliquez comment chacune d’elles traite du handicap.

La Constitution de la République du Bénin contient une disposition concernant directement le handicap. Selon l’Art. 26 l’homme et la femme sont égaux en droit. L’Etat protège la famille et particulièrement la mère et l’enfant. « Il veille sur les handicapés et les personnes âgées ».

3.2 La constitution de la République du Bénin contient-elle des dispositions concernant indirectement le handicap? Si oui énumérez les dispositions et expliquez comment chacune d’elles traite indirectement du handicap.

La Constitution du 11 décembre 1990 proclame dans son préambule son adhésion aux idéaux des principes, droits et devoirs établis dans la Charte de l’Organisation des Nations Unies, la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme, les Conventions et Pactes internationaux relatifs aux Droits de l’Homme, l’Acte constitutif de l’Union Africaine, la Charte Africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples (CADHP). L’Art. 8 de la Constitution affirme que « la personne humaine est sacrée et inviolable. L’Etat a l’obligation absolue de la respecter et de la protéger. Il lui garantit un plein épanouissement. A cet effet, il assure à ses citoyens l’égal accès à la santé, à l’éducation, à la culture, à la formation professionnelle et à l’emploi ».

Benin country Report 2018-4
4.1 La République du Bénin a-t-elle une législation concernant directement le handicap? Si oui énumérez la législation et expliquez comment la législation aborde le handicap.

La République du Bénin a une législation concernant directement le handicap. La Loi n° 2017-06 du 13 avril 2017 portant protection et promotion des droits des personnes handicapées, 20 garantit la prévention du handicap à travers une politique nationale de santé; donne droit aux titulaires à une « carte d’égalités des chances ». Des sanctions sont prévues pour toute violation des droits des personnes handicapées. Le droit à l’emploi est également inscrit en faveur des personnes handicapées, tout comme celui à l’accessibilité. La loi permet aux personnes handicapées de jouir pleinement de leur droit de citoyens. Enfin, la loi prône le droit à la vie de l’enfant handicapé.

  • Loi 2013-06 du 25 novembre 2013 portant Code électoral. 21

Art. 86 - « Tout électeur atteint d’infirmité ou d’incapacité physique certaine, le mettant dans l’impossibilité de plier et de glisser son bulletin dans l’urne, est autorisé à se faire assister d’une personne de son choix ».

  • Loi 2010-33 du 07 janvier 2011 portant règles générales pour les élections en République du Bénin. 22

L’Act. 68 - « Tout électeur atteint d’infirmité ou d’incapacité physique certaine, le mettant dans l’impossibilité de plier et de glisser son bulletin dans l’urne, est autorisé à se faire assister d’une personne de son choix ».

  • Loi 2009-10 du 13 mai 2009 portant organisation du Recensement Electoral National Approfondi (RENA) et Etablissement de la Liste Electorale Permanente Informatisée (LEPI). 23

Art. 33 - De l’établissement de la carte d’électeur. Les personnes qui portent un handicap au niveau d’un ou plusieurs doigts bénéficient d’une carte d’électeur spéciale revêtue de leur photo numérique.

  • Loi 2007-02 du 26 mars 2007 portant modification des dispositions des Art. 10, 89, 93, 94, 95 et 101 de la Loi 98-019 du 21 mars 2003 portant Code de la Sécurité Sociale en République du Bénin. 24

Art. 94 nouveau (1er alinéa et 5ème alinéa) - 1er alinéa: « L’assuré en activité qui devient invalide avant d’atteindre l’âge de 60 ans a droit à une pension d’invalidité ».

  • Loi 2002-07 du 24 août 2004 portant Code des personnes et de la famille. 25

« Les personnes majeures dont les facultés mentales et corporelles sont altérées par une maladie, une infirmité ou un affaiblissement dû à l’âge » sont soumises à une tutelle ou curatelle.

  • Loi n° 98-004 du 27 janvier 1998 portant Code du travail - Paragraphe 5 - De l’emploi des personnes handicapées. 26

Les Articles 31 à 34 concernent l’emploi des personnes en situation de handicap, leur non-discrimination en matière d’emploi, l’exonération de la part patronale de l’impôt progressif sur les traitements, salaires, pensions et rentes viagères et de la mise en place la création d’une Commission nationale d’identification des personnes handicapées à l’emploi par des décrets du conseil national du travail prévu par le code, déterminent en tant que de besoin, les modalités d’application des présentes dispositions. Enfin y sont énoncés le principe de l’égalité des chances au travail, à l’emploi et à la rémunération.

4.2 La République du Bénin a-t-elle une législation concernant indirectement le handicap? Si oui énumérez la principale législation et expliquez comment elle réfère au handicap.

La République du Bénin a une législation concernant indirectement le handicap. Au Benin, toute législation est guidée par le principe de l’égalité de tous et s’applique à tous incluant les personnes handicapées.

Benin country Report 2018-5
5.1 Les cours (ou tribunaux) de la République du Bénin ont-ils jamais statué sur une question(s)relative au handicap? Si oui énumérez le cas et fournir un résumé pour chacun des cas en indiquant quels étaient les faits; la (les) décision(s), la démarche et l’impact (le cas échéant) que ces cas avaient entrainés.

En dehors des cours ou tribunaux ordinaires, la Cour Constitutionnelle du Bénin statue sur la violation des droits des personnes handicapées, lorsqu’elle en est saisie. Mme Géronime TOKPO, ancienne présidente de la Fédération des Associations des Personnes Handicapées au Bénin (FAPHB) a saisi la Cour Constitutionnelle le 8 juin 2011 pour inconstitutionnalité du rejet de son dossier de candidature au concours des Auditeurs de Justice pour un poste non ouvert en écriture braille. Madame TOKPO, représentée par Maitre Joseph DJOGBENOU, a saisi la Cour Constitutionnelle le 8 juin 2011 (enregistrement à son Secrétariat le 9 juin sous le numéro 1442/065/REC) pour inconstitutionnalité du rejet de son dossier de candidature au concours des Auditeurs de Justice pour poste non ouvert à l’écriture braille. Madame TOKPO a perdu la vue suite à une maladie mal traitée quelques minutes après sa naissance, suite à une erreur médicale survenue durant les premiers soins de la nouvelle-née qu’elle était. En dépit de cet handicap, la requérante a toujours fait de brillantes études, scolaires, puis universitaires dans le but de poursuivre une carrière judiciaire au plus haut niveau. Pour cela, elle a déposé le 16 mai 2011 à la direction départementale du Ministère du Travail et de la Fonction publique, un dossier dans les mêmes conditions que les autres candidats. Elle y a ajouté une demande d’autorisation de composer en braille. Son dossier a été rejeté pour « poste non ouvert pour les épreuves de braille ». Cette décision contrevient aux Art. 26 Alinéa 1, 33, 36 8 de la Constitution, d’autant plus que Mme Tokpo « jouit des aptitudes physiques et l’équilibre mental et psychique prévus par les Art. 25 et 27 de la Loi n° 2011-35 portant statut de la magistrature ». La Cour Constitutionnelle a statué que « le traitement infligé à Mme Géronime TOKPO est discriminatoire ». « La présente décision a été notifiée à Géronime TOKPO, à Madame la Ministre de la Fonction Publique, à Maitre Joseph DJOGNENOU et publié au Journal Officiel ». 27

Antérieur au cas de Madame Géronime TOKPO, celui de Monsieur Sylvain HINNOUHO AKLE qui a saisi la Cour Constitutionnelle le 20 septembre 1999 (enregistrement à son Secrétariat le 22 octobre 1999 sous le numéro 1950/0109/REC). Lors d’un communiqué radio (N° 033), le Ministre de la Fonction publique, du Travail et de la Réforme administrative, en date du 4 juin 1999, relatif au recrutement de deux cent quarante et un (241) agents permanents de l’Etat, il a été fixé comme condition d’accès à la Fonction publique ou à l’attribution d’une bourse et secours d’études à l’étranger que le candidat devait « jouir d’une bonne condition physique ... Etre indemne de toute affection poliomyélitique, tuberculeuse ... Ou être définitivement guéri ». En saisissant la Cour Constitutionnelle, Monsieur Sylvain HINNOUHO AKLE a soutenu que le pouvoir exécutif, en s’exprimant ainsi avait « créé une division au sein de la population en se basant sur des critères plus ou moins subjectifs ; qu’il avait failli à sa principale mission de faire assurer aux citoyens l’égal accès à la santé, à l’éducation, à la culture ..., à la formation professionnelle, à l’emploi; à sa légale mission d’assurer à tous l’égalité devant la loi ... à sa mission humanitaire de veilleur sur les handicapés ... ». En menant une lecture croisée et combinée, à partir des dispositions des Art. 8, 26 30, 36 de la Constitution béninoise et 18 Alinéa 4 de la Charte africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples, en matière de droit de la Fonction publique, le requérant a considéré que l’Etat béninois portait discrimination à l’égard des personnes ne situation de handicap dans le recrutement de ladite Fonction publique.

La Cour Constitutionnelle a débouté le requérant en affirmant que le communiqué radio du Ministère de la Fonction publique, du Travail et de la Réforme administrative, en date du 04 juin 1999, n’était en rien contraire à la Constitution. En effet, l’Art. 98 énonce que « sont du domaine de la loi des règles concernant ... Le statut général de la Fonction publique ... la loi déterminant les principes fondamentaux ... du Droit du travail ... ». En outre la Cour Constitutionnelle a fait également valoir que la Charte africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples, en son Art. 18 alinéa 4 met en exergue que « les personnes âgées et handicapées ont également le droit à des mesures spécifiques de protection en rapport avec leurs besoins physiques ou moraux ».

En résumé, le communiqué radio, dénoncé par Monsieur Sylvain HINNOUHO AKLE, rappelait juste les conditions générales d’accès à la Fonction publique et donc ne visaient aucunement les personnes en situation de handicap. Par conséquent, le communiqué radio ne violait pas l’Art. 26 de la Constitution béninoise, et n’était pas discriminatoire envers les personnes handicapées.

La décision de la Cour Constitutionnelle a été notifiée à Monsieur Sylvain HINNOUHO AKLE, au ministre de la Fonction publique, du Travail et de la Réforme administrative et publiée au Journal Officiel le 1e mars 2001.28

Benin country Report 2018-6
6.1 La République du Bénin a-t-elle des politiques ou programmes qui englobent directement le handicap? Si oui énumérez la politique et expliquez comment cette politique aborde le handicap.

La République du Bénin a des politiques et des programmes qui englobent directement le handicap:

La Politique Nationale de Protection et d’Intégration des Personnes Handicapées (PNPIPH) (2012-2021). L’adoption de la PNPIPH se « fonde essentiellement sur la détermination [du pays] à œuvrer pour l’avènement d’une société démocratique respectueuse des Droits de l’Homme et libertés fondamentales pour un développement économique et sociale durable ». La PNPIPH respecte des « dispositions de la Constitution du 11 décembre 1991, Par. 5 de la Loi 98-004 portant Code du Travail, la Convention 159 du BIT concernant la réadaptation professionnelle et l’emploi des personnes handicapées et de la Convention des Nations Unies relative aux Droits des Personnes Handicapées du 13 décembre 2006 ». Les principes de la PNPIPH reposent sur: a) le respect de l’égalité entre homme et femme, sur la responsabilité de l’Etat de protéger la famille et plus particulièrement la mère et l’enfant et de veiller sur les personnes handicapées et les personnes âgées ; b) le sacré et l’inviolabilité de la personne humaine ; c) le droit à la vie, à la liberté, à la sécurité et à l’intégrité de toute personne humaine d) le droit à l’éducation de tous les enfants. Enfin, les principes de la PNPIPH sont en adéquations avec les résolutions ou recommandations internationales, en matière de Droits de l’Homme, dont la CRDPH.

Programme National de Réadaptation à Base Communautaire (RBC) qui a permis d’éduquer les enfants handicapés dans les écoles ordinaires, en tenant compte de leurs besoins éducatifs spéciaux. Les catégories de handicap sur lesquelles le Programme s’investit le mieux dans le cadre de cette approche sont: le handicap moteur, le handicap mental, l’infirmité motrice d’origine cérébrale, le handicap visuel léger et le handicap auditif. Il s’agit d’une approche qui mérite d’être généralisée sur l’étendue du territoire national.

6.2 La République du Bénin a-t-elle des politiques ou programmes qui englobent indirectement le handicap? Si oui énumérez chaque politique et décrivez comment elle aborde indirectement le handicap.

La République du Bénin a des politiques et des programmes qui englobent indirectement le handicap:

Alafia 2025 fait suite à la réalisation d’une Etude Nationale de Perspective à Long Terme, qui a abouti à l’adoption, en 2000, d’une vision à long terme de la promotion d’une protection sociale au Bénin. La République du Bénin devenant en 2025 « un pays-phare, un pays bien gouverné, uni et de paix, à économie prospère et compétitive, de rayonnement culturel et de bien-être social »: 29

Le Régime d’Assurance Maladie Universelle (RAMU). La Loi 2015-42 portant institution du RAMU en République du Bénin vise à améliorer le système national de couverture maladie en intégrant en autres, les populations économiques faibles selon les Art. 1 et 7.

Benin country Report 2018-7
7.1 En dehors des cours ou tribunaux ordinaires, la République du Bénin a-t-elle un organisme officiel qui s’intéresse spécifiquement de la violation des droits des personnes handicapées? Si oui décrire l’organe, ses fonctions et ses pouvoirs.

Non, en dehors des cours ou tribunaux ordinaires, la République du Bénin ne dispose pas d’un organisme official qui s’intéresse spécifiquement à la violation des droits des personnes handicapées.

7.2 En dehors des cours ou tribunaux ordinaires, la République du Bénin a-t-il un organisme officiel qui, bien que n’étant pas spécifiquement en charge de la violation des droits des personnes handicapées s’y attèle tout de même? Si oui décrire l’organe, ses fonctions et ses pouvoirs.

La Cour Constitutionnelle du Bénin statue sur la violation des droits des personnes handicapées, lorsqu’elle en est saisie. Aux termes des dispositions de l’Art. 114 de la Loi n° 90-32 du 11 décembre 1990 portant Constitution de la République du Bénin, la Cour constitutionnelle est la plus haute juridiction de l’Etat en matière constitutionnelle. Elle est juge de la Constitutionnalité de la loi et elle garantit les droits fondamentaux de la personne humaine et les libertés publiques. Les attributions dévolues à la Cour constitutionnelle l’amènent à statuer obligatoirement notamment sur « la constitutionnalité des lois et des actes réglementaires censés porté atteinte aux droits fondamentaux de la personne humaine et aux libertés publics et en générale, sur la violation des droits de la personne humaine ».

Benin country Report 2018-8
8.1 La République du Bénin est-elle doté d’une Commission de Droits de l’Homme ou d’un Ombudsman ou d’un Protecteur du Citoyen? Si oui ses missions incluent-elles la promotion et la protection des droits des personnes handicapées? Si votre réponse est oui, indiquez également si la Commission de Droits de l’Homme ou l’Ombudsman ou le Protecteur du Citoyen de la République du Bénin n’a jamais abordé des questions relatives aux droits des personnes handicapées.

La République du Bénin a créé la Commission Béninoise des Droits de l’Homme (CBDH), en 2013 cependant elle n’est toujours pas opérationnelle.30

Benin country Report 2018-9
9.1 Avez-vous en République du Bénin des organisations qui représentent et défendent les droits et le bien-être des personnes handicapées? Si oui énumérez chaque organisation et décrivez ses activités.

Il existe des organisations qui représentent et défendent les droits et le bien-être des personnes handicapées en République du Bénin. Elles sont environ 200, mais seules une trentaine sont effectives sur le terrain. Au vu du grand nombre, il ne sera donné que quelques exemples (certaines étant plus dynamiques que d’autres):

  • L’Association pour la Promotion et l’Intégration Sociale des Aveugles et Amblèpopes du Bénin (APISAAB), qui s’engage sur les questions d’éducation, de formation professionnelle, l’accès à l’emploi des personnes déficientes visuelles.
  • L’Organisation des Femmes Aveugles du Bénin (OFAB) qui se bat pour la promotion et la valorisation des potentialités des femmes déficientes visuelles.
  • La Chrisalide qui est une association qui s’occupe de la prise en charge des personnes déficientes intellectuelles.
  • L’Associaiton Miwasdagbé qui prend en charge et éduque les enfants déficients intellectuels (RBC).
  • L’Organisation Non-Gouvernementale le Cercle des Oliviers travaille sur la prise en charge et l’accompagnement scolaire de tout type d’enfants en situation de handicap, sur l’éducation inclusive.
  • L’Association pour la Promotion de l’Emploi des Sourds (APES), qui prône l’éducation des enfants sourds, la formation professionnelle des adultes sourds.
  • Le Lion Handisport, qui promeut l’handisport.
  • L’Handi-Music-Plus (HMP), qui travaille sur la formation et la promotion des artistes - en l’occurrence des musiciens en situation de handicap.
  • Assistance aux Jeunes Handicapées du Bénin (AJHB) qui promeut le bien-être social des toutes les personnes vulnérables, telles que les orphelins et enfants vulnérables (dont les enfants abandonnés) et plus particulièrement les enfants handicapés.
  • Groupe d’Action des Journalistes pour la défense des droits des personnes handicapées au Bénin (GRAJ-PH) qui est engagé aux côtés des personnes handicapées pour défendre leurs droits dans la société.
  • Creuset pour l’insertion Professionnelle des Personnes Handicapées (COiPH), dont le domaine d’intervention est la défense des droits des enfants handicapés, l’appareillage et l’aide technique, l’orthophonie et la prise en charge/soin du trouble du langage.
  • Association des Femmes Handicapées du Bénin (AFHB) qui agit sur la scolarisation des enfants handicapés et des femmes handicapées.
  • Association des Handicapés pour la Lutte contre la Mendicité (AHLM) qui travaille pour une meilleure intégration socio-économique des personnes handicapées.
  • Syndicat National des Travailleurs Handicapées du Bénin - Défense et promotion des Droits des travailleurs handicapés dans l’administration et défense de l’insertion socioprofessionnelle des handicapés diplômés.
9.2 Dans votre région, les OPH sont-elles organisées ou coordonnées au niveau national et/ou régional?

Depuis 1992 et après sa restructuration en 2015, les OPH sont réunies au sein de la Fédération des Associations des Personnes Handicapées Bénin (FAPHB) au niveau national, puis au niveau département sous forme de réseaux départementaux.

Depuis le 22 mai 1992, et après restructuration en avril 2015, les Organisations des Personnes Handicapées (OPH) sont représentées au sein de la Fédération des Associations des Personnes Handicapées au Bénin (FAPHB) et sont réparties en 6 réseaux départementaux (actuellement au nombre de 6 mais bientôt 12 pour se conformer au nouveau découpage adopté par le Bénin) et enfin au niveau communal, avec environ 200 organisations. 31

9.3 Si la République du Bénin a ratifié la CDPH, comment a-t-elle assuré l’implication des Organisations des personnes handicapées dans le processus de mise en œuvre?

C’est à l’initiative du Gouvernement du Bénin que la FAPHB et autres organisations et associations de la Société civile ont été réunies afin de donner leurs points de vue sur l’élaboration de la loi sur la protection et promotion des droits des personnes handicapées. Les acteurs de la société civile, dont la FAPHD, ont proposé certaines mesures, comme par exemple, l’imposition de quotas dans la fonction publique en faveur des personnes handicapées; mesure n’ayant pas été retenue car ayant été considérée comme anticonstitutionnel. Lors du vote de la Loi 2017-06, la FAPHD et autres organisations et associations étaient présentes. Ces dernières restent toujours mobilisées pour une accélération de la prise des décrets d’application. La FAPHD est également présente et active dans les commissions des Affaires sociales et au sein d’Ateliers sous-régionaux.

9.4 Quels genres d’actions les OPH ont-elles prise elles-mêmes afin de s’assurer qu’elles soient pleinement intégrées dans le processus de mise en œuvre?

Les OPH à travers la FAPHB mènent des actions de plaidoyer, de sensibilisations à travers différents projets sur tout le territoire national en s’appuyant sur les réseaux départementaux. C’est grâce à cette mobilisation qu’il y a vote et promulgation de la Loi 2017-06 du 13 avril 2017 portant Protection et Promotion des Droits des Personnes Handicapées en République du Bénin.

9.5 Quels sont, le cas échéant les obstacles rencontrés par les OPH lors de leur engagement dans la mise en œuvre?

Les premiers obstacles rencontrés par les OPH lors de l’engagement dans la mise en œuvre ont été la non prise en compte de mesures proposées au gouvernement du Béninois à la suite des concertations qui ont abouti au vote et promulgation de la Loi 2017-06. Les seconds obstacles concernent les OPH elles-mêmes. Le nombre d’OPH sur tout le territoire béninois est trop important et régulièrement pose le problème de leadership, de manque de moyens financiers et matériels. Et de professionnalisme. Certaines OPH n’existent que sur le papier ou/et ont été créées comme palliatif à un chômage endémique chez les personnes en situation de handicap. Pour finir, la FAPHB a durant une vingtaine d’années été léthargique jusqu’en 2015 au moment de sa restructuration.

9.6 Y a-t-il des exemples pouvant servir de ‘modèles’ pour la participation des OPH?

La FAPHB est très proactive et engagée auprès des ministères les plus concernés et au niveau local auprès des communes.

9.7 Y a-t-il des résultats spécifiques concernant une mise en œuvre prospère et/ou une reconnaissance appropriée des droits des personnes handicapées résultant de l’implication des OPH dans le processus de mise en œuvre?

La Loi 2017-06 du 13 avril 2017 portant protection et promotion des droits des personnes handicapées est un aboutissement positif grâce à l’implication des OPH dans le processus de mise en œuvre de la CRDPH.

9.8 Votre recherche (pour ce projet) a-t-elle identifié des aspects qui nécessitent le développement de capacité et soutien pour les OPH afin d’assurer leur engagement dans la mise en œuvre de la Convention?

La diminution du nombre d’OPH et leur spécialisation en fonction des handicaps serait une première étape. La seconde étape serait la professionnalisation de ces OPH avec la formation des membres directeurs à la gestion et au développement d’une association/organisation ainsi qu’au techniques de lobbying auprès des pouvoirs publics afin de faire aboutir les projets. L’Etat pourrait également être un acteur favorisant les OPH sur des critères rigoureux en matière de subvention d’organisations/associations de la société civile. Le renforcement de la communication au niveau national et local et plus particulièrement dans les zones reculées sur le territoire est une stratégie dans un contexte de vulgarisation des Convention et lois en faveur de la promotion et protection des personnes handicapées. Cette vulgarisation étant particulièrement utile dans les zones reculées sur le territoire béninois.

9.9 Y a-t-il des recommandations provenant de votre recherche au sujet de comment les OPH pourraient être plus largement responsabilisées dans les processus de mise en œuvre des instruments internationaux ou régionaux?

Les OPH au travers de la FAPHB devraient être représentées dans les organes en charge de la mise en œuvre des instruments internationaux ou régionaux, et plus particulièrement parties prenantes dans la rédaction et la présentation du rapport conformément à l’Art. 35 de la CDPH qui aurait dû être soumis depuis le 5 juillet 2014. La FAPHB pourrait accompagner et faire pression auprès du Gouvernement du Bénin.

9.10 Y a-t-il des instituts de recherche spécifiques dans votre région qui travaillent sur les droits des personnes handicapées et qui ont facilité l’implication des OPH dans le processus, y compris la recherche?

Il n’existe aucun Institut de Recherche spécifique au Bénin qui travaille sur les Droits des personnes handicapées. Les Instituts qui pourraient s’y intéresser n’abordent que les aspects de prévention médicale des déficiences.

Benin country Report 2018-10
10.1 Avez-vous de(s) branche(s) gouvernementale(s) spécifiquement chargée(s) de promouvoir et protéger les droits et le bien-être des personnes handicapées? Si oui, décrivez les activités de cette (ces) branche(s).

Il existe une direction spécifiquement chargée de promouvoir et protéger les droits et le bien-être des personnes handicapées. Cette branche dépend du Ministère des Affaires Sociales et de la Micro Finance. La direction a changé de nom à plusieurs reprises ; autrefois Direction de la Réadaptation et de l’Intégration des Personnes Handicapées, elle est aujourd’hui la Direction des Personnes Handicapées et des Personnes Agées (DPHPA). La DPHPA a sous sa responsabilité les structures étatiques d’encadrement des personnes handicapées, les écoles spécialisées, les centres de formation professionnelle. Entre 2010 et 2016, il a existé le Fond d’Appui à la Réadaptation et à l’Intégration des Personnes Handicapées. Celui-ci a été intégré dans le Fonds d’Appui à la Solidarité Nationale.

Benin country Report 2018-11
11.1 Quels sont les défis contemporains des personnes handicapées en République du Bénin? (Exemple: Certaines régions d’Afrique pratiquent des tueries rituelles de certaines catégories de personnes handicapées telles que les personnes atteintes d’albinisme. A cet effet La Tanzanie est aux avant-postes. Nous devons remettre en cause les pratiques coutumières qui discriminent, blessent et tuent les personnes handicapées.

Les défis contemporains auxquels sont confrontés les personnes handicapées au Bénin sont l’accès à un emploi autonomisant, la très grande majorité des personnes handicapées du pays étant au chômage. En outre, il n’existe pas de mesures spécifiques favorables au recrutement des personnes handicapées tant dans la Fonction publique que dans le Secteur privé. L’accès au crédit est également un large problème pour les personnes handicapées. L’accessibilité aux infrastructures ouvertes au publiques, à la communication dans des formes appropriées sont toujours des contraintes pour les personnes handicapées. Les enfants handicapés ne bénéficient pas de plein droit à une éducation inclusive, et sont malheureusement toujours victimes de pratiques rituelles néfastes dans certaines régions du Bénin. Enfin, l’extrême pauvreté frappe plus encore les personnes en situation de handicap.

11.2 Comment la République du Bénin répond-t-il aux besoins des personnes handicapées au regard des domaines ci-dessous énumérées?

Après ratification de la CRDPH, la République du Bénin a adopté deux documents importants:

  • La Politique Nationale de Promotion et d’Intégration des Personnes Handicapées (2012-2021);
  • La Loi 2017-06 du 13 avril 2017 portant protection et promotion des droits des personnes handicapées en République du Bénin.

Ces documents définissent les stratégies et approches en réponse aux besoins des personnes handicapées, dans tous les domaines. Malheureusement, la politique et législation en faveur des personnes handicapées au Bénin ne sont toujours pas pleinement effectives sur le terrain afin d’avoir un impact positif sur la vie des personnes handicapées. En effet, l’accès aux bâtiments publics (Art. 45), au transport public (Art. 47, 48 et 49), à l’éducation (Art. 30-35), à la formation professionnelle (Art. 36). 32 En dépit d’une reconnaissance légale du droit à l’emploi (Art. 37-43), les personnes handicapées ne bénéficient toujours de mesures spécifiques qui leurs seraient favorables. La pratique de l’Handisport est timidement accompagné par l’Etat, en dépit des Art. 59, 60 et 61. L’Accès à la justice reste toujours un immense problème. Enfin, l’accès aux soins de santé conformément aux Art. 21et 22 est un autre challenge pour les personnes handicapées.

11.3 La République du Bénin accorde-t-il des subventions pour handicap ou autre moyen de revenue en vue de soutenir les personnes handicapées?

Le Fonds d’Appui à la Solidarité Nationale apporte des appuis ponctuels de diverses formes (bourses d’étude, aides techniques, etc.) à quelques personnes handicapées. Cependant, la Loi 2017-06 a prévu certaines allocations et subventions (Art. 18, 19, 23 et 28). Dans l’attente de l’adoption de différents décrets d’application de la loi - dont la budgétisation par le Ministère des Finances, rein n’est encore effectif.

11.4 Les personnes handicapées ont-elles un droit de participation à la vie politique (représentation politique et leadership, vote indépendant etc.) de la République du Bénin?

Toute personne handicapée a le droit de participer à la vie politique au Bénin comme le droit de vote garanti par les Art. 63, 64 et 65 de la Loi 2017-06. Cependant, les personnes handicapées au Bénin manifestent très peu d’intérêt à la vie politique. Ceci s’expliquant par de nombreux obstacles comme:

  • l’inadaptation du système électoral due au manque d’infrastructures, à la document adéquate (bulletins électoraux), la communication électorale non accessible, etc.
  • l’Art. 44 de la Constitution du 11 décembre 1990 qui discriminante envers les personnes handicapées puisque stipule que « nul ne peut être candidat aux fonctions de Président de la République s’il ne « jouit pas d’un état complet de bien-être physique et mental dûment constaté par un collège de trois médecins assermentés désignés par la Cour Constitutionnelle ».
11.5 Catégories spécifiques expérimentant des questions particulières/vulnérabilité:

- Femmes handicapées. La Loi 2017-06 du 13 avril 2017 portant Protection et Promotion des Droits des Personnes Handicapées, la République du Bénin dans son Art. 4 préconise l’égalité entre les hommes et les femmes.

- Enfants handicapés. La Loi 2017-06 du 13 avril 2017 portant Protection et Promotion des Droits des Personnes Handicapées, la République du Bénin préconise le respect du développement des capacités de l’enfant handicapé et le respect du droit des enfants handicapés à préserver leur identité (Art.4). L’éducation doit être gratuite et inclusive en milieu ordinaire pour les enfants et adolescents handicapés dans les établissements scolaires publics (Art. 30). L’enfant né avec une déficience à droit à la vie et est déclaré à l’Etat civil (Art. 44). Les enfants handicapés doivent bénéficier, tout au long de leur scolarité de soutiens adaptés (Art. 35).

- Prisonniers souffrant de déficience mentale. Aucune mention n’est faite des prisonniers souffrant de déficiences mentales dans la Loi 2017-06 du 13 avril 2017. D’ailleurs, les personnes déficientes intellectuelles ne bénéficient toujours pas de tout leurs droits. En outre, il n’existe toujours pas au Bénin, une école spécifique d’Etat qui pourrait s’occuper de la formation de cette catégorie de personnes. Seules les OPH ou les ONGs s’occupent de ces personnes déficientes intellectuelles.

Benin country Report 2018-12
12.1 Y a-t-il des mesures spécifiques débattus ou prises en compte présentement en République du Bénin au sujet les personnes handicapées?

La mesure la plus importante débattue au sein des OPH est la prise rapide des décrets d’application de la Loi 2017-06 du 13 avril 2017 afin de renforcer la prise en charge des personnes handicapées et promouvoir l’épanouissement des personnes handicapées.

12.2 Quelles réformes légales sont proposées? Quelle réforme légale aimeriez-vous voir en République du Bénin? Pourquoi?

Outre la l’accélération de la mise en œuvre sur le terrain des décrets d’application en faveur des personnes handicapées selon la Loi 2017-06 portant Protection et Promotion des Droits des Personnes Handicapées, la République du Bénin aurait tout intérêt à se munir d’un recensement spécifique des personnes handicapées fiable, tenant compte en particulier des femmes handicapées et des enfants handicapés.

La prise en compte de la dimension « Genre » dans ce recensement spécifique des personnes handicapées pourrait permettre une meilleure évaluation des violences envers les femmes handicapées et de mener ainsi une politique effective de prévention sur l’ensemble du territoire béninois.

Le recensement des enfants et jeunes handicapés peut aussi participer à une meilleure politique d’éducation et formation inclusives dans les établissements scolaires et de formations publics. En vertu de la lutte contre toute forme de violence, torture envers les enfants handicapés, une enquête sur l’ensemble du territoire et plus particulièrement dans les zones reculées du Bénin pourrait aider à la sensibilisation et changement de mentalité sur les enfants en situation de handicap et une meilleure prise en charge - matériel et financière - à la fois des enfants et de leur famille.

L’accélération du processus de mise en place de la Commission Béninoise des Droits de l’Homme et son autonomie matérielle et financière, doit également s’accompagner, non pas uniquement d’une nomination des défenseurs des droits de l’enfant et des droits des femmes, mais également d’un représentant des droits des personnes handicapées.

Un recensement fiable des personnes handicapées au chômage, avec ou sans diplôme peut accompagner un programme politique en faveur de l’emploi des personnes handicapées et une sensibilisation du droit au travail des personnes handicapées.

Une évaluation de l’ensemble des bâtiments publics, ou non, non conformes au droit à l’accessibilité aux personnes handicapées peut permettre une meilleure politique et programme chiffrés sur l’ensemble du territoire.

Outre l’engagement des OPH, la création d’un centre de recherche sur la question des droits des personnes handicapées peut participer à une meilleure compréhension et une meilleure sensibilisation à la fois des populations mais également de tout membres des autorités gouvernementales garants de la Constitution et du Respect des droits des personnes handicapées.

 

 

 


1. Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique (INSAE), Ministère du Développement, de l’Analyse Economique et de la Prospective, Rapport Final, RGPH4.pdf, 2015. Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique (INSAE), Principaux indicateurs sociodémographiques et économiques (RGPH-4, 2013), février 2016).

2. INSAE), Principaux Indicateurs socio-démocratiques et économiques (RGPH-4, 2013), mai 2013, http://www.insae-bj.org/recensement-population.html . Selon la Fédération des Associations de Personnes Handicapées du Bénin (FAPHB), ces données officielles sont encore très loin de la réalité [Interview menée le 8 janvier 2018].

3. Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique (INSAE), Principaux indicateurs sociodémographiques et économiques (RGPH-4, 2013), février 2016), p. 7. Le tableau ne faisant pas état de statistiques, ces dernières ont été calculées par nos soins en tenant compte du nombre total des personnes en situation de handicap soit 92 495.

4. République du Bénin Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique disponible sur www.insae-bj.org/recensement-population.html [consulté le 24/02/2018].

6. Nations Unies Droits de l’ Homme- Haut-Commissariat http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN&Lang=FR[consulté le 24/02/2018].

7. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Rapport de l’Etat partie établi au titre de LOIPR, CAT/C/BEN/3, 07/02/2018, p.9) [Consulté le 24/02/2018] (Comme ci-dessus).

8. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Rapport de l’Etat partie établi au titre de LOIPR, CAT/C/BEN/3, 02/02/2018, p.31) [Consulté le 24/02/2018] (Comme ci-dessus) 31.

9. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Rapport de l’Etat partie, CCPR/C/BEN/2, 03/11/2013, p. 7) [Consulté le 24/02/2018] (Comme ci-dessus) 7.

10. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR [Observations finales, CCPR/BEN/CO/2, 22/11/2015, p. 2) [Consulté le 24/02/2018] (Comme ci-dessus) 2.

11. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Rapport de l’Etat partie, CEDAW/C/BEN/4, 20/03/2012) [consulté le 24/02/2018].

12. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Liste des points à traiter, CEDAW/C/BEN/Q/4 - CEDAW/C/BEN/Q/4/Corr.1 - 18/03/2013 - 01/05/2013) [consulté le 24/02/2018].

13. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Réponse à la liste des points à traiter, CEDAW/C/BEN/Q/4/Add.1, 07/08/2013, p. 10) [consulté le 24/02/2018] (Comme ci-dessus).

14. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Rapport de l’Etat partie, E/C.12/BEN/2, 29/03/2007) [consulté le 24/02/2018].

15. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Liste des points à traiter, E/C.12/BEN/Q/2 - III. Points se rapportant aux dispositifs générales du Pacte (Act. 1e à 5) Art. 2.2 : Non-discrimination -, 24/09/2007, pp. 3-4).

16. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Observations finales, E/C.12/BEN/CO/2, 09/06/2008, p.3).

17. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=BEN& Lang=FR (Rapport de l’Etat partie CRC/BEN/3-5, 29 juillet 2013, p.6) [consulté le 24/02/2018].

18. Système de diffusion électronique des documents de l’ONU https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/037/16/PDF/G1603716.pdf?OpenElement ,18p. [Consulté le 24/02/2018]

20. Secrétariat General du Gouvernement de la République du Benin https://sgg.gouv.bj/view/documentheque/Loi-N%C2%B0-2017-06/ [Consulté le 24/02/2018].

21. Secrétariat General du Gouvernement de la République du Benin https://sgg.gouv.bj/view/documentheque/LOI-N%C2%B0-2013-06/ [Consulté le 24/02/2018].

22. Secrétariat General du Gouvernement de la République du Benin https://sgg.gouv.bj/view/documentheque/LOI-N%C2%B0-2010-33/ [Consulté le 24/02/2018].

23. Secrétariat General du Gouvernement de la République du Benin https://sgg.gouv.bj/view/documentheque/LOI-N%C2%B0-2009-10/ [Consulté le 24/02/2018].

24. Secrétariat General du Gouvernement de la République du Benin https://sgg.gouv.bj/view/documentheque/LOI-N%C2%B0-2010-10/ [Consulté le 24/02/2018].

25. Secrétariat General du Gouvernement de la République du Benin https://sgg.gouv.bj/view/documentheque/LOI-N%C2%B0-2002-07/ [Consulté le 24/02/2018].

26. Secrétariat General du Gouvernement de la République du Benin http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/49604/77451/F89020835/BEN-49604.pdf [Consulté le 24/02/2018].

27. Nous remercions Mme Géronime TOKPO pour la mise à disposition du document « Décision DCC 12-06 du 3 mai 2012 ». Quelque temps après notre étude de terrain auprès de Mme TOKPO nous avons été informés du décès de cette dernière.

28. Document « Décision DCC 01-005 du 11 janvier 2011 » http://www.cour-constitutionnelle-benin.org/doss_decisions/01015.pdf [Consulté le 9 avril 2018].

29. http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/benin/10691.pdf , p. 23 [Consulté le 24/02/2018].

30.

31. Selon les estimations de la FAPHB seules une trentaine d’associations/organisations seraient effectives.

32. Il n’existe que quelques écoles spécialisées sur tout le territoire et uniquement deux centres de formation professionnelle pour les personnes handicapées.

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