The 2010 Population and Housing Census (PHC) states that the population of Ghana is 24 658 823 showing an increase of 30,4 per cent over the 2000 PHC of 18 912 079.2
The Ghana 2010 PHC is an improvement over the 2000 PHC. The 2010 PHC provided for the enumeration of persons with disability (PWDs) in order to address the need for data.3 The 2010 PHC followed the essential concepts and definitions of ‘a modern Population and Housing Census’ as recommended by the United Nations (UN)4 to obtain the statistical data on the prevalence of disability. Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) employed the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps’ (ICIDH, WHO 1980) definition of disability.5 The GSS translated the ICIDH concepts into simpler, non-technical language that could be understood by respondents. Thus information was collected on persons with visual or sight impairment, hearing impairment, mental retardation, emotional or behavioural disorders and other physical challenges.
In Ghana there are 737 743 persons with some form of disability, representing 3 per cent of the total population.6
The most prevalent form of disability in Ghana is the visual or sight impairments with 40,1 per cent of the total population having some form of disability. This is followed by persons with physical disabilities, other than visual impairment of 25,4 per cent; then by persons with psychosocial disabilities with 18,6 per cent, people with intellectual disabilities with 15,2 per cent and then other forms of disability with 10,4 per cent.9
Ghana ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on 5 February 1990. Ghana’s second state report13 to the Committee on the Rights of the Child (Committee) was due in 1997, but submitted in March 2005 and concluding observations were adopted on 27 January 2006. Ghana’s second state report to the Committee identified the following steps taken to promote the rights of PWDs:
The Committee in its concluding observation17 made the following recommendations with regard to the rights of children with disabilities:
Ghana ratified the ACHPR on 24 January 1989. Although Ghana’s second periodic report was due in 1993, it was submitted in 2000. In the report under article 18 of the Charter, the following aspects regarding disability rights were mentioned:
Ghana’s first cycle of the universal periodic review21 took place from 5 to 16 May 2008. The UPR report indicated that the 1992 Constitution of Ghana provides in Chapter 5 for the protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms of PWDs. Ghana’s second cycle of the universal periodic review22 took place from 22 October to 5 November 2012. This report indicated with regard to disability rights that, Ghana is committed to comply with its international human rights obligations. Ghana ratified the CRPD in July 2012. The effect of the ratification of the CRPD is that Act 715 will be amended to reflect the provisions of the CRPD, in order to effectively promote and protect the rights of PWDs.23
Ghana operates under a dualistic legal system. International treaties must be ratified in Parliament with a majority vote and assented to by the President.25 After such ratification by Parliament the international treaty will be legally enforceable. Furthermore, the internal domestic laws must be amended to conform to the international instruments.26 Where there is conflict between domestic law and ratified international instruments, the international instrument takes precedence over domestic law.
The first prominent case came in 1993 when the court held in National Patriotic Party v Inspector General of Police (NPP v IGP)27 that the Protocol to the ACHPR could be invoked without formal incorporation into local law, where the same rights were also protected in the Ghanaian Constitution.
The Persons with Disability Act 2006 (Act 715) was passed into law in August 2006 to provide for PWDs. Act 715 contains some civil rights,28 social rights29 and political rights,30 similar to those provided for in the CRPD.31 Since the Disability Act of 2006 had been passed before ratification of the CRPD in 2012, the CRPD has not been incorporated verbatim into Act 715. The following are some provisions in the CRPD that are not included in Act 715, which still need to be addressed:
Act 715 does not address equality of PWDs before and under the law as the CRPD provides.33 The non- discrimination provision34 in Act 715 is not detailed enough. The provision does not address the need for prohibiting all kinds of discrimination on the basis of equality as addressed by the CRPD.35 Such a provision is vital in determining the significance of the legislation, particularly in view of the fact that Ghana’s constitutional non-discrimination clauses36 do not provide for disability. Act 715 needs to address non-discrimination in detail in order to effectively do away with the negative attitude of the society against PWDs. 37
Act 715 does not address the fundamental human rights of women with disabilities (WWD) and children with disabilities. There is therefore the need for Act 715 to address the rights of WWD and the prerequisite need for their empowerment. This is necessary for the reason that WWDs suffer multiple discrimination39 and they are among the most excluded in our society.40 The African Charter on Women’s Rights, of which Ghana is a signatory, provides that state parties should ensure:
[T]he protection of women with disabilities and take specific measures to commensurate with their physical, economic and social needs to facilitate their access to employment, professional and vocational training as well as their participation in decision-making ... [State parties should also] ensure the right of women with disabilities to freedom from violence, including sexual abuse, discrimination based on disability and the right to be treated with dignity.41
Empowerment of WWD will ultimately enable them to contribute to the socio-economic development of the nation. Act 715 is furthermore silent on the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms of children with disabilities on an equal basis with other children.42 The principle of the best interests of the child with a disability43 and provision for disability age-appropriate assistance clauses enabling children with disabilities to realise their rights44 are also absent from Act 715. The incorporation of such provisions will necessitate measures, policies and strategic plans to promote and protect the rights of children with disability. 45
Act 715 did not address the need for Ghana to adopt immediate, effective and appropriate measures for awareness-raising regarding the rights of PWDs and to foster respect for the rights and dignity of PWDs. So that, the state can effectively combat stereotypes, prejudices and harmful practices relating to PWDs through public awareness campaigns and promoting awareness-training programmes. The incorporation of this provision will encourage all organs of the media to portray PWDs in a manner consistent with the purpose of a comprehensive Persons with Disability Act. Currently the media does not have adequate information on PWDs, nor does it face any direct or indirect pressure from any recognised body to cover disability issues.47
Accessibility provisions addressed under Act 715 do not cover the state’s obligation to provide training for stakeholders on accessibility issues; and different forms of live assistance and intermediaries, including guides, readers and professional sign language interpreters. Addressing accessibility provisions in detail under Act 715 will guarantee the provision of live assistance and intermediaries throughout society to cater for the needs of PWDs. This would go a long way to solve problems of wrong interpretation and guarantee quality services to hearing-impaired persons. It is for this reason that GNAD49 appealed to the government of Ghana to recognise Sign Language as the official language for the hearing impaired and make provision for the employment of sign language interpreters.
Act 715 does not safeguard the inherent rights of PWDs. As a result of this omission, some traditional practices still encourage the killing of PWDs especially children with disabilities.51 There is a ‘spirit child’ phenomenon that started in some parts of the Upper East region in the northern part of Ghana in 1975. It is a cultural practice whereby children born with disabilities or whose birth coincides with a tragic incident in the family, such as the loss of a parent, are killed. Such babies are called ‘spirit children’ and are thought to be a ‘bad omen’. The community is considered to be blasphemous and cursed by the gods and for this reason the ‘unfortunate creature’ must return.52 Afrikids is an NGO in the northern Ghana region. After twelve years of awareness campaigns by Afrikids and improved access to education, the people of the Upper East region stopped with the killing of children.53 However, there is still a need to incorporate provisions on the right to life in Act 715 in order to effectively and totally put an end to the killings of children with disabilities.
Act 715 does not contain provisions mandating the state to take appropriate measures to prevent all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse of PWDs by ensuring, inter alia, appropriate forms of gender - and age - sensitive assistance and support for PWDs, their families and caregivers. Activists supporting the rights of PWDs were concerned with the slow implementation of the Persons with Disability Act, especially the lack of legislative instruments to implement the new law.55 Despite the legal protection provided for in the law, discrimination against PWDs in employment and the inaccessibility of public buildings continues to be a problem. The reason for this is that there is no obligation on the state to take appropriate measures to prevent all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse of PWDs. Finally, the absence of independent monitoring authorities56 creates a vacuum in the implementation process of Act 715. The non-existence of a monitoring team to exert pressure on the state has resulted in a delay of the implementation process of Act 715 as is evident from calls for the rapid implementation of the Act. 57
The Children’s Act (Act 560) is an act to reform and consolidate the law relating to children, to provide for the rights of the child, maintenance and adoption, regulating child labour and apprenticeship, for ancillary matters concerning children generally and to provide for related matters. Section 3 of Act 560 deals with non-discrimination against a child on the ground of disability. Section 10(1) of Act 560 provides for the treatment of a child with a disability. Section 10(2) of Act 560 addresses the right of the child to special care, education and training for maximum potential and to be self-reliant.
Act 651 is an Act to amend and consolidate the laws relating to labour, employers, trade unions and industrial relations. The law establishes a National Labour Commission, and provides for related matters. Section 3(e) of Act 651 caters for the economic right of PWDs. Section 14(e) of Act 651 prohibits an employer to discriminate against an employee on grounds of disability. Part IV of the law regulates the employment of PWDs.
The courts (or tribunals) have not decided many cases relating to disability rights. However, the Persons with Disability Act protects PWDs, in addressing violations of their rights. A case relating to disability rights, Ghana Federation of the Disabled (GFD) v Attorney General, Ghana Highway Authority and Millennium Development Authority (MiDA),61 is pending before the High Court. On 8 February 2013 GFD took action against three public institutions for neglecting the needs of PWDs in the construction of the George Walker Bush Highway. The transportation network did not take the needs of PWDs into account in the design, construction and operation of the transportation network.62
GFD is requesting the Human Rights Court in Accra, to order the Ghana Highway Authority, MiDA and the Attorney General to modify the highway to integrate the needs of PWDs as provided in Act 715. The next court date is 16 June 2013.
The guiding principle is that for Ghana to achieve any meaningful and sustainable development, it needs to harness all its human resources. This policy considers the fact that all people irrespective of sex or disability can contribute to the national development process if given the opportunity.
This serves as a guideline for the government to engage the youth and other stakeholders in meaningful partnership to develop appropriate interventions and services for youth empowerment and development. Accordingly the policy ensures the active participation of young people with disabilities.
The Education Strategic Plan (ESP) 2010-2020 sets out government’s strategies for the education sector over the next decade. The ESP has a policy objective to improve access to quality education for PWDs. Inclusive Education (IE) and Special Educational Needs (SpED) to young PWDs is informed by three guiding principles:
The CHRAJ was established by an Act of Parliament.67 The CHRAJ is composed of one Commissioner and two deputy Commissioners who are appointed by the President of Ghana acting in consultation with the Council of State.68 The Commissioners in the performance of their functions are not subjected to the direction or control of any person or authority.69 The CHRAJ has the constitutional function70 to investigate complaints of violations of fundamental human rights and freedoms, injustice, corruption, abuse of power and unfair treatment of any person by a public officer in the exercise of public duties. The CHRAJ also has the duty to investigate complaints concerning practices and actions by persons, private enterprises and other institutions where those complainants allege violations of fundamental human rights and freedoms under the Constitution. The CHRAJ has the mandate to educate the public as to human rights and freedoms by publications, lectures and symposia. The CHRAJ has the constitutional power to seek a remedy in respect of such acts or omissions and to provide for other related purposes.
The CHRAJ has the constitutional power71 to question any person in respect of any matter that the CHRAJ is investigating. The CHRAJ has the mandate to order72 any person to appear before them and to disclose any document or record relevant to any investigation to them.
The CHRAJ cannot investigate73 a matter pending before a court, or matters involving the government of Ghana’s relations with another government or international organisation. Finally, the CHRAJ cannot investigate matters relating to the President of Ghana’s exercise of prerogative of mercy.
The Department of Social Welfare is a statutory agency mandated to promote and protect the rights of children, justice and administration of child related issues, community care for PWDs and needy adults. The DSW investigates cases of contravention of children’s rights. The DSW operates health assessment to provide early diagnostic medical attention to mothers and infants to determine the existence or onset of disability. 75
Domestic Violence and Victim Support Unit of the Police provides focal points for complaints and counselling.77 DOVVSU is mandated to provide protection from domestic violence particularly for women and children and for connected purposes.
The Police Service aims at ensuring that all officers fulfil their obligations and discharge their duties whilst promoting, protecting and respecting the human rights of individuals.79 As a result, complaints about domestic violence could be lodged with the police. The police are mandated to respond promptly to a request for assistance from domestic violence even when the person reporting is not victim of the domestic violence.
The Constitution provided for the establishment of an independent Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ).80 The functions of the CHRAJ,81 as set out by the Constitution, include the duty to investigate complaints of violations of fundamental human rights and freedoms, injustice, corruption, abuse of power and unfair treatment of any person by a public officer in the exercise of his public duties. The CHRAJ also has the duty to investigate complaints concerning practices and actions by persons, private enterprises and other institutions where those complaints allege violations of fundamental human rights and freedoms under the Constitution. The CHRAJ also has the duty to educate the public on human rights and freedoms. The CHRAJ was established by an Act of Parliament, during 1993. The CHRAJ has offices located in all the ten regional capitals and in the administrative districts of Ghana. The CHRAJ was established by the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice Act, 1993 (Act 456).
Though the mandate of the CHRAJ does not specifically and explicitly include ‘addressing disability rights’ the structure of the CHRAJ ensures that human rights and freedoms are promoted and protected throughout Ghana. The CHRAJ has investigated few cases relating to the rights of PWDs.
There are a number of organisations that represent and advocate for the rights and welfare of PWDs in Ghana. The activities of DPOs are mostly to sensitise the public of their existence, advocate for equal opportunities in society and promote the rights of PWDs through building their capacity and ensuring the full inclusiveness of their needs, aspirations, and active participation in national and local policies and programmes. The DPOs in Ghana82 are:
The GFD is the national umbrella of DPOs in Ghana. GFD was established in 1987 with the aim of promoting the rights of PWDs, advocating for equal opportunities in society and for active participation in national and local policies and programmes.
GBU’s membership comprises of people who are visually impaired. GBU functions at national and regional levels with less activity at a district level. GSPD is helping GBU to establish branches at the district level.
MEHSOG members are people who have experienced some form of mental health disability over a period of time. Though they have fully recovered, they continue to experience discrimination, stigmatisation and rejection by their families due to the prejudice created by traditional beliefs. MEHSOG functions at a national level and does not have branches at a regional level.
Non-Governmental Organisations’ (NGOs) activities, amongst others, are to advocate for the rights and welfare of PWDs. Most of these NGOs undertake projects to enhance the welfare of PWDs, and sponsor disability programmes which promote the welfare of PWDs. The NGOs are:
CDD Ghana is an independent, non-partisan organisation based in Accra, Ghana. CDD is dedicated to the promotion of society and good governance based on the rule of law, appropriate checks on the power of the state and integrity in public administration. In CDD’s human rights work, it focuses on the promotion and protection of the rights of vulnerable groups in society as well as expansion of citizenry access to justice.
SEND-Ghana is an affiliate of SEND (Social Enterprise Development) Foundation of West Africa. Its focus is into research and advocacy to contribute to poverty reduction and strengthen good governance practices in Ghana. Most of its developmental operations are in the 50 poorest districts in the Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions of Ghana. SEND-Ghana champions pro-poor policy programmes which contribute to create an enabling environment for vulnerable citizens. SEND-Ghana empowers, at grassroots level, people such as people with disabilities, SEND-Ghana activities are enhanced by the numerous research projects undertaken.
Sightsavers has been working in Ghana since the 1950s. Currently they are working with the Ministry of Health to support the current five-year action plan for eye care at both regional and national levels. Projects in Ghana include integrating children who are blind or visually impaired into mainstream schools, helping people regain their confidence and livelihoods after losing their sight, as well as preventing and treating eye problems in the poorest areas of the country. Sightsavers is also tackling the shortage of eye care workers by supporting local people to train as eye care professionals. Sightsavers pursue programmes to promote the welfare of PWDs.86
In Ghana Basic Needs currently operates in the rural areas of the Northern, Upper East, Upper West and Greater Accra Regions. Basic Needs works to end the suffering of people with mental illness by ensuring that their basic needs are met and their basic rights are respected.
Right to Dream provides professional sports, education and leadership academies to under privileged young talents. Right to dream advocates that disabilities should not deprive PWDs of realising their dreams. Currently, Right to Dream’s para-sports programme aims to develop young athletes with disabilities into sporting role models and medal winners who will represent Ghana at Rio in 2016 and in future sporting events.
On 18 March 2013, the Executives of the GFD held a meeting with President JD Mahama. The agenda of the meeting was to discuss the role of DPOs in the implementation of the CRPD and the need for enactment of a legislative instrument (LI) to operationalise Act 715. On the implementation process of the CRPD, the executives of GFD were assured that measures were underway to put in place a technical team to monitor and document the implementation of the CRPD, to prepare and submit shadow report.90
The main challenge with implementation is the unwillingness on the part of government departments and agencies to include DPOs in the implementation process. As a result DPOs lack adequate information on the state of implementation.91
DPOs made the following recommendations:98
The research has revealed that almost all the organisations that promote the rights of PWDs undertake research at some point in time. DPOs have been involved in most of this research, because they play an important role in reporting accurate information with regard to PWDs. However CDD-GHANA, Centre for Disability and Rehabilitation Studies-KNUST99(CEDRES) and the Department of Special Education (University of Education-Winneba) collaborate and involve DPOs in their research.
Most Ghanaians are still prejudiced by the belief that PWDs are either cursed or are children of evil spirits.100 Such negative cultural beliefs encourage stigmatisation and discrimination depriving PWDs of their fundamental rights.101
Owners or occupiers of a place to which the public has access shall provide appropriate facilities that make the place accessible to and available for use by a PWD. 102
The needs of PWDs must be taken into account in the design, construction and operation of the transportation network. 103
It is mandatory for a child with a disability of school going age to be enrolled in school. There should be provision made for the necessary facilities and equipment that will enable PWDs to fully benefit from the school or institution. And there shall be free education for PWDs and the establishment of special schools for PWDs who by reason of their disability cannot be enrolled in formal schools. 104
There shall be a vocational training in each region.105
The Ministry shall through the public employment centres, assist to secure jobs for PWDs. 106
As far as practicable there shall be the provision of adequate facilities, programmes and incentives to enable PWDs have access to sports and cultural events. 107
Where a PWD is a party in judicial proceedings, appropriate facilities shall be provided in accordance with the condition of the PWDs to facilitate effective participation. 108
Article 252 of the 1992 Constitution mandates Parliament to allocate not less than 5 per cent ( amended to 7,5 per cent in 2008 )110 of total revenues111 of Ghana’s income to the District Assemblies for development; in compliance with Ghana’s constitutional mandate to strengthen the democratic system.112 The fund is paid into the District Assemblies Common Fund (DACF) on quarterly instalments.113 The fund is administered by the District Assemblies Common Fund Administrator (DACFA) who is appointed by the President of Ghana and approved by Parliament.114 The DACF is allocated to Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies ( MMDAs) based on a formula proposed by the DACFA and approved by Parliament.115 In developing the formula, the overriding criterion has been to attain a balanced and equitable development, with the overall goal of improving the living conditions of the people.116 Five factors have been developed for the formula.117 These are the equality factor, the need factor, the responsive factor, the service pressure factor, and the reserve factor. PWDs are allocated two percent of the DACF,118 there may be variations in the percentage allocated as a result of an introduction of a new indicator with its variable attached weight. 119
The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) Programme provides cash and health insurance to extremely poor households across Ghana to alleviate short-term poverty and encourages long term human capital development. Eligibility is based on poverty and having a household member in at least one of three demographic categories: single parent with an orphan or vulnerable child (OVC); elderly poor; or a person with an extreme disability unable to work (PWD).
In Ghana, it is required that a person or institution which organises a national, regional or district activity, shall as far as practicable ensure that facilities are made available for the participation in the activity by PWDs.122 Ghana’s 2012 national elections drew PWDs into political activities. The Electoral Commission engaged some PWDs for various jobs in the electoral process.123 Tactile ballot jackets were provided, the visually impaired were allowed to vote guided by their chosen guides and the polling stations were made accessible to PWDs. A visually impaired person has been appointed a Minister. 124
Most children with disabilities are denied care and acceptance into the family and community. Subsequently, they are denied access to education and health facilities. Their situation is worsened by the fact that there are inadequate data collection mechanisms and early assessment facilities in order to monitor them, identify their disabilities and get them the required intervention.
Parliament has a mandate to bring a duly passed Act into operation through the adoption of a statutory instrument.125 A statutory instrument to Act 715 is currently under consideration in Parliament. A statutory instrument can serve to provide for how the objectives of the Act should be achieved as well as clarify any ambiguities in the Act. A statutory instrument needs to be adopted before PWDs can have full enjoyment of the rights and benefits provided for under Act 715. The following are some sections of Act 715 that require the adoption of a statutory instrument in order to come into operation:
The LI bringing Act 715 into force is currently under consideration in parliament.126 Once the Act is in force, Ghana will improve its domestic legal framework on the rights of PWDs that gives effect to provisions of the CRPD. This will strengthen efforts to reform policies, so as to improve the lives of Ghanaians with disabilities.127 Consequently, Ghana will undertake effective policy measures to develop the necessary infrastructure to address issues concerning the rights of PWDs. Again, programmes will be adopted to sensitise and encourage the community for positive engagement with PWDs in order to strengthen the promotion and the protection of the rights of PWDs.128
2. GSS 2010 PHC summary report of final results (May 2012) 1 (2010 PHC summary report) http:// www.statsghana.gov/docfiles/2010phc/Census2010_Summary_report_of_final_results.pdf (accessed 3 August 2013).
10. Art 75(1) & (2) of 1992 Constitution of Ghana provide: ‘(1) The President may execute or cause to be executed treaties, agreements or conventions in the name of Ghana. (2) A treaty, agreement or convention executed by or under the authority of the President shall be subject to ratification by: (a) Act of Parliament; or (b) a resolution of Parliament supported by the votes of more than one-half of all the members of Parliament.’
11. West African Regional Portal on the Rights of People with Disabilities ‘Ratification of the CRPD by Ghana on July 31, 2012’ http://proadiph.org/Ratification-de-la-CDPH-par-le.html (accessed 8 May 2013); Human Rights Watch ‘Ghana: Disability Rights Convention Ratified’ 22 August 2012 http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/08/22/ghana-disability-rights-convention-ratified (accessed 8 May 2013).
17. Committee on the Rights of the Child, forty-first session, Consideration of reports submitted by states parties under article 44 of the Convention Concluding Observations: Ghana 17 March 2006 CRC/GHA/CO/2.
20. Ghana: 2nd Periodic Report to the ACHPR, 1993-2000 31 http://www.achpr.org/states/ghana/reports/2nd-1993-2000 (accessed 20 May 2013).
21. UPR First Cycle - Ghana A/HRC/WG.6/2/GHA/1 29 http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/upr/pages/ghsession?aspx Check link (accessed 20 May 2013).
22. UPR Second Cycle - Ghana A/HRC/WG.6/14/GHA/1 15; http://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/upr/pages/GHsession14.aspx (accessed 20 May 2013).
23. ‘Disability Act falls short of UN CRPD: Report’ Global Accessibility News 1 July 2013. http://globalaccessibilitynews.com/2013/07/01/disability-act-falls-short-of-un-crpd-report/ (accessed 6 August 2013).
36. Arts 17(2), 35(5), & (6) of the 1992 Constitution; K Appiagyei-Atua K ‘The new disability law in Ghana, the way forward’, a speech delivered in the second annual CHRAJ-GBA-CHRI Lectures on ‘Advancing economic, social and cultural rights in Ghana’ 2006.
39. ‘Respect our rights ... persons with disabilities tell public services providers’ The Chronicle undated http://thechronicle.com.gh/respect-our-rights-persons-with-disability-tell-public-service-providers/ (accessed 9 August 2013).
40. O Mensah et al Strengthening the disability movement in Ghana through organizational capacity and advocacy: Contextual analysis of the disability situation in Ghana (2008) 113 http://www.gfdgh.org/Context%20analysis.pdf (accessed 9 August 2013).
45. ‘Parents urged to stop concealing children with disabilities’ The Chronicle undated http://thechronicle.com.gh/parents-urged-to-stop-concealing-children-with-disabilities/ (accessed 9 August 2013); ‘The spirit child phenomenon’ Ghana Web 5 July 2013 http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=278609 (accessed 9 August 2013).
49. ‘Provide sign language interpreters for all deaf students’ The Ghanaian Times 12 September 2012 http://newtimes.com.gh/story/provide-sign-language-interpreters-for-all-deaf-students-gnad (accessed 8 August 2013).
51. ‘Spirit Child: An investigation into the ritual killing of disabled Ghanaian children deemed to be possessed by evil spirits’ Aljazeera 10 January 2013 http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/peopleandpower/2013/01/201319121124284358.html (accessed 8 August 2013); Laura Pannack Photography ‘Saving the cursed children of Ghana’ (2012) http://laurapannack.com/commissions/stories/ghana/#PHOTO_1 (accessed 8 August 2013); CW Munyi ‘Past and present perceptions towards disability: A historical perspective’ (2012) 32 Disability Studies Quarterly http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/3197/3068 (accessed 8 August 2013).
53. ‘Ghanaian communities commended for abolishing killing of “spirit children”’ Ghana Business News 30 April 2013 http://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2013/04/30/ghanaian-communities-commended-for-abolishing-killing-of-spirit-children/#sthash.GOvWQVVb.dpuf (accessed 9 August 2013).
55. 2012 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Ghana 19 April 2013: http://www.refworld.org/docid/517e6e33e.html (accessed 8 August 2013).
57. ‘Expedite action on implementation of Disability Act - CHRAJ’ Modern Ghana 2 December 2009 http://www.modernghana.com/news/252164/1/expedite-action-on-implementation-of-disability-ac.html . (accessed 8 August 2011); ‘Persons with disability bemoan slow action on implementation of Act’ My Ghana Tv http://videos.myghana.tv/watch-listen-to-ghana-news-on-tv-live-online/persons-with-disability-bemoan-slow-action-on-implementation-of-act.html ; ‘GFD calls for implementation of the Disability Act 715’ GNADGH 8 July 2007 http://gnadgh.com/news/?p=10 (accessed 8 August 2011).
82. The author surveyed some executives of DPOs and some PWDs on ‘Overview of Disability Rights in Ghana’ (hereinafter referred to as Responses from questionnaire by some executives of DPOs and some PWDs).
84. SEND-Ghana’s website: http://www.sendwestafrica.org (accessed 8 August 2013).
85. Sight Savers’ website: http://www.sightsavers.org (accessed 8 August 2013).
86. Sightsavers ‘The first if its kind’ 2012 http://www.sightsavers.org/our_work/around_the_world/west_africa/ghana/12911.html (accessed 12 May 2012).
87. Basic Needs’ website: http://www.basicneeds.org (accessed 8 August 2013).
88. Right to Dream Foundation’s website: http://www.righttodream.org ; ‘Right to dream’ http://www.escapethecity.org/organisations/right-to-dream (accessed 8 August 2013).
89. Right to play - Ghana: ‘International programs’ http://www.righttoplay.com/switzerland/our-impact/Pages/Countries/Ghana.aspx (accessed on 8 August 2013).
100. Mensah et al (n 40 above); AR Denham et al ‘Chasing spirits: Clarifying the spirit child phenomenon and infanticide in northern Ghana’ (2010) 71 Social Science and Medicine 608 http://www.academia.edu/267798/check link(accessed 9th August 2013); ‘Spirit Child: An investigation into the ritual killing of disabled Ghanaian children deemed to be possessed by evil spirits’ (n 51 above); ‘Saving the cursed children of Ghana’ (n 51 above).
101. ‘More chiefs oppose Dr Danaa’s nomination as Chieftaincy Minister’ Peace FM Online 6 February 2013 http://www.elections.peacefmonline.com/politics/201302/155493.php (accessed 10 May 2013); ‘Cultural factors undermining development of disabled’ Modern Ghana 5 December 2007 http://www.modernghana.com/news/149283/1/cultural-factors-undermining-development-of-disabl.html (accessed 7th August 2013); Munyi (n 51 above).
110. P Bazaanah ‘Nature of Ghana’s Inter-Governmental Revenue Transfer within the decentralized structure of governance: A case of the District Assemblies Common Fund’ unpublished paper , Institute of Development Studies, University of Cape Coast, Ghana, 2012 23. http://www.academia.edu/3300157/NATURE_OF_GHANAS_INTER-GOVERNMENTAL_REVEN UE_TRANSFER_WITHIN_THE_DECENTRALIZED^STRTCTURE_OF_GOVERNANCE_A_CASE_OF_THE_DISTRICT_ASSEMBLIES_COMMON_FUND (accessed 15 August 2013).
111. Sec 17 of The District Assemblies Common Fund Act, 1993 (Act 455) interprets total revenues of Ghana as: ‘All revenue collected by or accruing to the central government other than foreign loans, grants, non-tax revenue and revenues already collected by or for District Assemblies under any enactment in force’.
112. Art 35(6)(d) of the 1992 Constitution enjoins the state to: ‘make democracy a reality by decentralizing the administrative and financial machinery of government to the regions and districts and by affording all possible opportunities to the people to participate in decision-making at every level in national life and in government’.
The ‘RESPONSIVENESS’ category was incorporated in the formula to motivate districts to generate local revenue and is comprised of measures that are believed to reflect the District Assembly’s efforts in that regard.
The ‘SERVICE PRESSURE’ category is meant to capture the intensity of use of public facilities in a district. It has comprised solely of the population density of the district since the inception of the DACF.
‘RESERVE’ amount is used for bulk purchases for the District Assemblies and to support the Regional Coordinating Councils and the office of the DACF Administrator in their monitoring roles. Also, a proportion of the ‘RESERVE’ is distributed evenly between all the members of parliament for development projects of their choice in their constituencies.
118. According to the Guidelines for utilising the District Assemblies Common Fund (2013), Two per cent of the DACF shall be utilised to support initiatives by PWDs in the district. This fund is meant to assist PWDs to organise programmes to create awareness about their activities, their rights and obligations.
119. AB Banful ‘Do institutions limit clientelism? A study of the District Assemblies Common Fund in Ghana’ unpublished Postdoctoral fellow, Development Strategy and Governance Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, USA, 2009 12 & 13 http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp00855.pdf (accessed 1 October 2013).
120. Department of Social Welfare ‘Cape Coast Metropolitan Office’ http://www.dswcapecoast.com/ (accessed 17 May 2013).
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